The growing gap between post-secondary schooling and further education: findings of 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2016 surveys of the employed Canadian labour force

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Author: Livingstone, David W.; Raykov, Milosh


This article summarizes the findings of a 2016 national survey of the formal schooling, further education, and job-related informal learning of the employed Canadian labour force and compares the results with those of prior national surveys conducted in 1998, 2004, and 2010. The major finding is an unprecedented growing gap between increasing post-secondary school completion and decreasing participation in further education. This gap may have begun in a recessionary labour market but may now be driven by the increasing underemployment of the qualifications of post-secondary graduates who...  [+] Show more

Subjects: Participation; Qualifications; Employment; Labour market

Keywords: Postsecondary education; Formal education; Further education; Informal learning; Academic achievement; Skills mismatch; Data analysis; Underemployment; Relevance of education and training; Labour demand; Economic conditions; Trend

Geographic subjects: Canada; North America

Published: Nova Scotia, Canada: Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education, 2017

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Journal volume: 29

Journal number: 1

Journal date: January 2017

Pages: pp. 83-105

ISSN: 1925-993X (online)

Statement of responsibility: D. W. Livingstone and Milosh Raykov

Includes abstract in French

Resource type: Article

Peer reviewed: Yes

Call number: TD/TNC 137.1120

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