Lifelong learning: formal, nonformal, informal and self-directed


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Author: Mocker, Donald W.; Spear, George E.

Corporate author:

ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education (ERIC/ACVE); National Center for Research in Vocational Education (U.S.) (NCRVE)


A model is presented to help clarify the concept of lifelong learning. Constructed on the idea that an operational definition of lifelong learning should be based on the locus of control for making decisions about the goals and means of learning, the model is a two-by-two matrix of learner and institution that represents four identified situations of learning: formal (learners have little control over the objectives or means of learning); nonformal (learners control the objectives but not the means of learning); informal (learners control the means but not the objectives of learning);...  [+] Show more

Subjects: Lifelong learning; Teaching and learning

Keywords: Nonformal education; Informal education; Continuing education

Geographic subjects: North America; United States

Published: Columbus, Ohio: ERIC/ACVE and NCRVE, 1982

Physical description: 31 p.

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Series: ERIC/ACVE information series; no. 241

Statement of responsibility: Donald W. Mocker and George E. Spear

Resource type: Report

Document number: TD/TNC 87.1150

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