What's new in Teaching and learning

  • A collection of research-led, higher education resources and guidance materials for academics, graduate researchers and policy makers [added 15 September, 2020]
    (Source: Melbourne Centre for the Study of Higher Education)
    Although pitched at higher education practitioners, many of these resources could be useful across all tertiary education context. The range of resources available here includes short practical guides, longer guides, discussion papers and reports and weblinks. This collection is organised into the following areas: Teaching, learning and assessment; Student experience and wellbeing; International education; Engagement; Policy and management; Archived publications.
    • Teaching digital skills
      This is a new section of the VET Practitioner Resource focusing on the topics of digital skills and digital literacy.

    Learning strategies

    General - Free resources

    Research

    • Innovation in teaching and learning in vocational education and training: international perspectives [2009]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This publication explores both the characteristics and examples of innovative teaching and learning practice internationally. It found that technologies can be used to support networks of practitioners and resource banks to foster better professional practice and help practitioners exchange ideas and resources. In addition, it is important for practitioners to be able to step back from their 'daily grind' to think about what they can do differently and how. They need to be supported to test out new resources and pedagogies in a culture of active experimentation.
    • Learning and teaching in initial vocational education and training [2000]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This report looks at students' and teachers' perceptions of initial VET. It also reveals how students engage in learning in education and training, provides a description of current teaching practices, and shows the influences which shape learning and teaching in initial VET.
    • Learning styles in the age of differentiated instruction [article, 2010]
      (Source: Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, Taylor and Francis)
      The concept of learning styles has tremendous logical and intuitive appeal, and educators' desire to focus on learning styles is understandable. Recently, a growing emphasis on differentiated instruction may have further increased teachers' tendency to look at learning styles as an instructionally relevant variable when individualizing instruction in increasingly heterogeneous classrooms. We discuss the overlapping concepts of individualized instruction and differentiated instruction, briefly review the evidence base for learning styles, and argue that instruction should indeed be individualized and differentiated. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence, however, to support learning styles as an instructionally useful concept when planning and delivering appropriately individualized and differentiated instruction.
    • Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY)
      A study that follows young Australians over 10 years, from their mid-teens to mid-twenties, as they move through school to further study, work and beyond.
    • NCVER statistical collection - Students and courses
      Data on all Australian VET activity, including enrolments, completions and funding.
    • NCVER survey - National Student Outcomes
      Survey of VET graduate outcomes from and satisfaction with Australia's national training system.
    • Regenerating the Australian landscape of professional VET practice: practitioner-driven changes to teaching and learning [2009]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This publication explores both the characteristics and examples of innovative teaching and learning practice in Australia. It is based on discussions with practitioners and vocational education and training (VET) managers responsible for teaching and learning. It examines why and how people are changing their pedagogy, and with what results.
    • Students' suggestions for improving their vocational education and training experience [2009]
      (Source: NCVER)
      An analysis of student verbatim responses in the Student Outcome Survey provides suggestions for how the vocational education and training (VET) system could be improved. Eight major domains are discussed: course relevance and design; staff attributes and behaviours; teaching and learning practices; access to courses; facilities and services; assessment practices; learning resources; equipment and materials; initial information provision; and administration and learning support services.

    Focus on practice

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    • Specialised RTO Services
      This is a directory listing site where providers of products and services for RTOs can list their materials, resources and advice. RTOs can search for products and services to support their work.
    • Thoughtful Works
      Provision of workshops, facilitation and coaching in areas including: engaging learners; vulnerable learners; supporting VET teachers in teaching and learning practice; professionalizing the practice of adult educators; and the Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL).
      Examples of workshops:
      • Accommodating students with dyslexia and other specific learning differences
      • Advanced teacher/trainer facilitation
        This workshop facilitates reflection on practice, testing of familiar habits and investigation of research-based teaching strategies.
      • Developing assessments that suit all levels of learning
      • Developing student voice to improve teaching and learning
      • Developing students as learners
      • Effective feedback: the what, why, when and how
      • How to teach the essential skills and capabilities
      • Engaging learners
        Learn effective strategies to ensure your students are engaged in learning as well as progressing
      • Managing challenging behaviours
      • Successful ways to engage and support disadvantaged learners
        Identify barriers and share strategies to progress student learning and achievement using a solution-based approach
      • Teaching essentials  - growing educators
        This workshop addresses the core essentials of teaching such as planning, getting feedback, instruction methods and building a community of learners.
      • The impact of trauma on learning
      • The new educator
        Understand what learning looks like for the 21st century and move your practice into a new space of collaboration and activation. Create a positive and strong learning culture to engage educators in contemporary teaching pedagogy and practice.
      • VCAL workshops
        Literacy, assessment, principles, integrated projects

    Adult learning - Free resources

    Focus on practice

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    Competency based education and training - Free resources

    Research

    • Competency based education and training: a world perspective [2000]
      (Source: VOCEDplus)
      This book examines the implementation of competency based education in some of those countries, including Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Cost Rica, South Africa and France.
    • Competency-based learning [book chapter, Canada, 2015]
      (Source: Teaching in a digital age: guidelines for designing teaching and learning, BC Open Textbooks)
    • The problematic role of CBT in Australian VET [paper, 2018]
      (Source: University of Melbourne)
      For many who work in the system, CBT is the only curriculum model they know for vocational education. This discussion describes the attractions of CBT to make clear that the architects of training reform had good reason to make CBT the cornerstone of a new system. This survey is followed by a systematic look at criticisms and shortcomings of CBT as articulated by researchers and other stakeholders. Finally, two questions are presented which would be useful to ponder in any attempt to shift away from CBT.
    • Working with a competency-based Training Package: a contextual investigation from the perspective of a group of TAFE teachers [article, 2015]
      (Source: International Journal of Training Research, Taylor and Francis)
      Reforms in the Australian VET landscape have generated significant interest in the changes to the delivery and nature of formal (off-the-job) training provided by RTOs. In this study, despite the reticence to change their pedagogy, the teachers capitalized upon the inherent flexibility in the Training Package framework to tailor and create opportunities for apprentices to apply and contextualize their knowledge and skills to realistic workplace tasks.

    Focus on practice

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    • Velg Training Learner Motivation Manual template
      Use this Learner Motivation Manual as part of your RTO’s response to Standard 1.7, ‘Support learners’. This document is designed to encourage students throughout their learning journey, and to motivate them toward achieving their study goals with your RTO.

    Problem based learning - Free resources

    Research

    Focus on practice

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    Teaching digital skills - Free resources

    Research

    • Developing digital competences of vocational teachers [book chapter, Switzerland, 2018]
      The main goal of the research presented is to develop a conceptual framework for teachers' professional development focused on digital competencies in vocational schools. See publisher's website for citation details.
    • Digital competence and professional development of vocational education and training teachers in Queensland [thesis, 2016]
      Using a mixed methods approach, this thesis investigated the current digital teaching capacities of VET teachers and how current professional development opportunities are helping to address their learning needs.
    • Digital skills cross sector project: case for change [2017]
      This project looked across a number of Training Packages to identify qualifications, skill sets and units of competency impacted by digital analytic/diagnostic skills, additive manufacturing (3D printing) skills, and programming/coding skills. The case for change includes recommendations to review and update 10 existing qualifications and 211 existing digital units from Training Packages within the scope of this project. It also recommends the undertaking of further cross sector work to examine the skill needs of Industry 4.0 and the potential impact on Training Packages.
    • Levelling up: the quest for digital literacy [Canada, 2018]
      This report maps the digital literacy education and training landscape in Canada. It highlights the types of digital skills that people in Canada are pursuing, sheds light on barriers to access, and identifies existing gaps and potential opportunities to improve the development and supply of digital literacy skills.
    • Preparing for Industry 4.0: will digital skills be enough? [2018]
      This research arose from work commissioned by the Australian Industry and Skills Committee - in the form of a cross sector project looking at the need for digital skills in a range of manufacturing and related industries. This report synthesises the research evidence - in relation to both digital skills and the broader challenges of skilling workers for the Industry 4.0 workplace.
    • Skilling for digital disruption and the future of work [webinar, 2018]
      This webinar will explore the vocational education and training implications of digital disruption in our future workplaces. The presenters will discuss the drivers changing the world of work, the skills we're predicted to need in the future and what this means for training. The presentation will consider a forthcoming NCVER research report that investigates the training implications of disruptive technologies associated with Industry 4.0, from the perspective of technology producers (innovators) and technology users (industry).
    • Skilling the Australian workforce for the digital economy [2019]
      This study explored the current digital skills demand and supply situation in Australia's workforce. The research investigated the skills impact of digitalisation on two industry sectors - transport and logistics, and public safety and correctional services - as well as the wider workforce. The research culminated in a proposed Australian workplace digital skills framework to help identify digital skills gaps among Australian industries and workforces to enable the development of appropriate training programs.
    • What digital skills do adults need to succeed in the workplace now and in the next 10 years? [UK, 2018]
      The aim of the evidence brief is to collate the evidence as comprehensively and systematically as possible to address this policy question. The brief outlines current definitions of general digital skills and highlights the current and possible future digital skills and competencies likely to be valued by the labour market. Three case study sectors - health and social care, culture and creative industries and financial services - are considered in light of current digital skill needs and developing digital skill requirements.

    Focus on practice

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    Work-based learning - Free resources

    Research

    • The hidden classroom of the workplace: how employees learn at work in both formal and informal ways [US, 2014]
    • The workplace learning examples described in this report are taken from real portfolios by working adults participating in LearningCounts. The examples show how the workplace can, and does, serve as a learning laboratory for workers, suggesting that employers might benefit from understanding more about how this learning laboratory can contribute to the organization.
    • Work-based learning and work-integrated learning: fostering engagement with employers [2016]
      (Source: NCVER)
      Work-based learning and the inclusion of the world of work into tertiary students' learning lie at the heart of the Australian VET system. Despite the strong emphasis of work-based learning in post-secondary education, both VET providers and universities faces challenges when it comes to engaging industry and employers in these educational provisions. This research synthesis draws on the literature on work-based learning and work-integrated learning to identify how engagement with industry and employers can be fostered, and what the two sectors can learn from each other.

    Focus on practice

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    • Global perspectives on work-based learning initiatives [book, 2019]
      (Source: IGI Global)
      This publication provides research on recent progress in selected countries across the globe in educational programs designed to better prepare students for the workforce through the use of work-related learning.

    Delivery methods

    Face-to-face education and learning - Free resources

    Research

    • Brief classroom training sessions for workplace readiness: are they effective? [article, 2017]
      (Source: International Journal of Training Research, Taylor and Francis)
      Classroom training sessions for new home care workers (HCWs) are often brief and ad hoc, varying in format and content. Yet the application of this training may be central to worker and client safety. A qualitative approach was adopted for this inquiry, comprising two separate but related practical studies. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of brief classroom training sessions, and suggestions for future research.
    • Comparison of the influences of structured on-the-job training and classroom training approaches on trainees' motivation to learn [article, Taiwan, 2016]
      (Source: Human Resource Development International, Taylor and Francis)
      Increasing trainees' learning motivation is critical to help them perform well in the training programme. This paper aims to examine the influences of the structured on-the-job training (S-OJT) and classroom training approaches on trainees' learning motivation and learning performance.
    • Choosing between online and face-to-face courses [US, 2013]
      (Source: Community College Research Center, New York)
      In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning, as well as their reasons for selecting online versus face-to-face sections of specific courses.

    Online/distance education and learning - Free resources

    Research

    • A learner perspective on barriers to e-learning [article, 2013]
      (Source: Australian Journal of Adult Learning)
      This study aims to identify and categorize barriers to e-learning adoption and the relative impact of those barriers on learners. It contributes to the understanding of learner perceptions of barriers, the different types of barriers and their relative importance.
    • Mobile learning and social media in adult learning [Europe, 2015]
      (Source: European Commission)
      This paper summarises the research on the use of social media and smart devices in adult learning.
    • The secret is the teacher: the learner's view of online learning [2002]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This report is based on a survey of vocational education and training students who were studying online, as well as discussions with teachers. It describes what makes for a quality online learning experience and provides suggestions for organisations delivering training online.

    Focus on practice

    • 10 best practices to be an effective online teacher [online article, 2016]
      (Source: eLearning Industry)
    • 10 principles of effective online teaching: best practices in distance education [US, date not supplied]
      (Source: Magna Publications)
      This special report explains the 'rules of the road' for online teaching and learning as developed at Penn State's World Campus.
    • ADCET/NCSEHE webinar: Three Essentials in moving online [2020]
    • Best practice in distance education and e-learning [2013]
      (Source: International Specialised Skills Institute)
    • Commonwealth of Learning
      An intergovernmental organisation created by Commonwealth Heads of Government to encourage the development and sharing of open learning and distance education knowledge, resources and technologies.
    • Digital learning [for schools]
      (Source: Victorian State Government, Education and Training)
      This website provides ​teaching ideas, materials and safety for using digital technologies in the classroom.
    • Digital Technologies Hub [school curriculum]
      (Source: Education Services Australia]
      This site is designed around the Digital Technologies Curriculum. Provides lesson ideas linked to the curriculum, explore strategies and advice from Australian primary and secondary schools and more.
    • Good practice in online teacher education [2019]
      (Source: National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education, Curtin University)
      This document responds to the growth in online initial teacher education (ITE) around Australia and the concerning statistics about lower retention, success, and completion rates of online ITE students. It is intended to be used by teacher educators working in the online space. It will also have relevance for educators working in other discipline areas in higher education who teach online.
    • International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning [journal]
    • Learning technology: a handbook for FE teachers and assessors [UK, 2018]
      This handbook is designed for further education (FE) and post-16 teachers. It provides the knowledge and skills required to source information learning technology (ILT) and content, and to convert traditional learning and teaching resources into engaging and interactive online material. It is designed around each aspect of the teaching and training cycle - identifying needs, planning and designing, delivering and facilitating, assessing and evaluating.
    • Online learning good practice
      (Source: Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency)
      This resource has been collated by TEQSA to assist the sector's rapid transition to online learning during COVID-19. To date, the resources listed cover a range of topics related to online learning, from getting started and helping workforces to work online, to student experiences and assessment integrity.
    • Smoothing the transition to online learning [online article, 2020]
      (Source: Australian Council for Educational Research)
      In this article, ACER's Dr Anne-Marie Chase recommends resources and reading to help teachers prepare for the transition to online learning.
    • Staying 'present' when teaching from a distance [online article, 2020]
      (Source: National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education, Curtin University)
    • Teaching in a digital age: guidelines for designing teaching and learning [Canada, 2015]
      (Source: BC Open Textbooks)
    • Teaching online resources [2020]
      (Source: Deniese Cox, Teaching online researcher, educator, and coach)
      These two sets of resources have been developed to support online educators. The first set are videos sharing practical ideas that educators can immediately implement. The second set is a 10-part series called 'Interviews with experts' featuring experienced online educators from major institutions in Australia and New Zealand.
    • Teaching with YouTube [2020]
      (Source: Eddie Woo on YouTube)
      Eddie Woo is an Australian secondary school teacher and writer best know for his online mathematics lessons published on YouTube. This video provides a guide to the kind of equipment teachers can use to record lessons for students to access online.
    • Understanding online pedagogy [online article, 2017]
      (Source: Australian Council for Educational Research)

    For purchase

    These are examples only of commercially available products. Inclusion on this list does not signify endorsement by NCVER.

    • ACER Accredited Short Course: Online Facilitation [2020-2021]
      (Source: Australian Council for Educational Research)
      This course is intended for educators new to online facilitation or those aspiring to improve their skills in online facilitation. It will equip participants with the skills and knowledge to be an effective online facilitator. The focus of the course is on the theory and practice of online pedagogy, how to facilitate online discussion and collaboration, and support student learning in the online environment. This course would be appropriate to educators working at all levels of education including school age, vocational education and training and higher education.
    • Velg Training webinars 
      • eLearning FUNdamentals for Excelling in eLearning Engagement
        Recorded on 03/12/2018 and forming part of Velg Training's Focus Week on eLearning, this webinar showcased the philosophies, tools and techniques enabling you to develop 'wow' eLearning at reduced cost and faster development timeframes.
      • Engaging Learners - Resources and Activities
        Recorded on 08/05/2019, this webinar discussed 40+ ideas that work to engage learners and disproved the theory to 'just using PowerPoint'.
      • Engaging Online Learning Tools for Training
        Recorded on 07/12/2018 and forming part of Velg Training's Focus Week on eLearning, this webinar explored how online tools can help to increase engagement with learners. As trainers, where do we begin? How do we incorporate the use of technology in our training across a range of delivery methods?
      • HTML, CSS and Bootstrap Hacks for eLearning
        Recorded on 05/12/2018 and forming part of Velg Training's Focus Week on eLearning, this webinar taught you quick HTML, CSS and Bootstrap tips and tricks to enhance your online resources.
      • Kickstarting Your Digital Transformation
        Recorded on 06/12/2018 and forming part of Velg Training's Focus Week on eLearning, this webinar provided tips and tricks that will kickstart your digital transformation in moving your training online.

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    Blended/hybrid education and learning - Free resources

    Research

    • Considerations for applying blended learning programs within TAFE [2015]
      (Source: International Specialised Skills Institute )
      This Fellowship was undertaken to better understand how learning platforms and learning tools are selected to encourage both teaching staff and students to engage fully in blended learning. It focused on three key areas: (1) the range of current technology choices available when developing blended learning courses; (2) the significance of teacher technological proficiency when implementing blended learning; and (3) the overall framework for implementation of successful blended learning programs for TAFE learners and teachers.
    • Effects of the flipped classroom: evidence from a randomized trial [discussion paper, US, 2019]
      (Source: School Effectiveness and Inequality Initiative, MIT Department of Economics)
      In a flipped classroom, an increasingly popular pedagogical model, students view a video lecture at home and work on exercises with the instructor during class time. This research demonstrated feasibility for the flipped classroom to induce short term gains in student learning; however, findings also suggest that educators should exercise caution when considering the model.
    • Good practice report: blended learning [2011]
      (Source: Australian Learning and Teaching Council)
      This research provides a summative evaluation of the good practices and key outcomes for teaching and learning from completed ALTC projects and fellowships relating to blended learning.

    Focus on practice

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    This is an example only of a commercially available product. Inclusion on this list does not signify endorsement by NCVER.

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    Social media - Free resources

    Research

    Focus on practice

    • Social media for learning and teaching undergraduate sciences: good practice guidelines from intervention [article, 2015]
      (Source: Electronic Journal of e-Learning)
      This paper reports on an investigation into the success of Facebook as an educational tool for a Pathology course for Medical Radiation students and a Clinical Sciences course for Nursing students. The focus is on the development  of  good practice principles relating to learning and teaching utilising Facebook groups. Six good practice principles were identified relating to: goals and objectives, expectations, communication, engagement with the course content, active participation, and learning environment.
    • Social media for teachers: guides, resources, and ideas [article, updated February 2015]
      (Source: Edutopia)
    • Social media in VET courses: good practice guide [2017]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This good practice guide explores the types of social media being used in vocational education and training (VET) courses, the benefits and pitfalls of using social media in teaching and learning as well as tips for incorporating social media into VET courses.
    • Using social media [resource]
      (Source: Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership)
      In this illustration of practice, a teacher uses social media platforms as a means of engaging students in a Year 7 geography unit about Antarctica.
    • Using social media to enhance students' learning experiences [online article, US, 2014]
      (Source: ASQ)

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    Teaching and training contexts

    Adult and community education - Free resources

    Research

    • Engagement and participation in a learner-centred system [2007]
      (Source: Adult Learning Australia)
      The overview and four papers in this publication examine the challenges posed by the 'participation imperative' for the VET system as a whole, with particular reference to ACE.
    • Hard to reach learners: what works in reaching and keeping them? [2010]
      (Source: Adult, Community and Further Education Board, Victoria)
      The report begins by defining who are hard-to-reach learners and presenting information on their location. Understanding local conditions is an essential element in the development of effective training. Best practice principles are then discussed in two contexts: (1) a set of principles broadly applicable to all hard-to-reach groups is described along with the strategies and techniques that flow from them; and (2) several particular groups are also considered (vulnerable workers, young people, Indigenous Australians and people with a disability).

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    Apprenticeships and traineeships - Free resources

    Research

    Focus on practice

    • Alternative pathways to apprenticeships: good practice guide [2015]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This good practice guide collates the relevant key findings for education practitioners and workplace supervisors from three research reports that look at different aspects of earlier completion such as competency-based progression and recognition of prior learning. Although the research highlights the benefits of completion, it also identifies gaps in communicating and supporting alternative pathways between policy-makers and program administrators, as well as communications between the training provider and the workplace.
    • Apprenticeships and traineeships: good practice guide for registered training organisations [3rd edition, 2012]
      (Source: Western Australian Department of Training and Workforce Development)

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    VET delivered to secondary students - Free resources

    Research

    Focus on practice

    • Guide to Western Australian school-based apprenticeships and traineeships (SBAT) [2020]
      (Source: Western Australian Department of Training and Workforce Development)
      This guide has been developed to support schools, registered training organisations, employers, students, parents and other stakeholders operating in the WA apprenticeship and traineeship system. It provides detailed information on the key aspects involved in an SBAT arrangement, including: a quick guide outlining the key steps involved in an SBAT from starting out through to completion; real life examples that make it easier to understand how SBATs actually work in practice; information on the roles and responsibilities of each of the stakeholders in an SBAT; and links for easy access to fact sheets, forms and other information.
    • Structured workplace learning manual for Victorian secondary schools [2017]
      (Source: Victorian State Government, Education and Training)
      • SWL Statewide Portal [Victoria]
        This portal helps school students to find work placements with employers across Victoria.
    • VET for secondary students in Australia's states and territories
    • Vocational placements [fact sheet]
      (Source: Fair Work Ombudsman)

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    Workplace education and training - Free resources

    Research

    • A huge learning curve: TAFE practitioners' ways of working with private enterprises [2005]
      (Source: NCVER)
      Increasingly, vocational education and training (VET) practitioners work with industry and within private enterprises in arrangements that provide training for workers. This report, based on interviews with TAFE practitioners and managers, enterprise managers and on-the-job learners, highlights the expanding roles of TAFE practitioners in these training arrangements.
    • Roles of informal workplace trainers in different organizational contexts: empirical evidence from Australian companies [article, 2006]
      Informal workplace trainers help employees learn what they need to know and do in order to get their job done. Little is known about the actions of informal workplace trainers, who may be colleagues or supervisors. This study provides an empirical basis for actions undertaken by informal workplace trainers.
    • The emerging role of enterprise learning consultants [2013]
      (Source: NCVER)
      Enterprise learning consultants (ELCs) assist industry by combining their educational - in the context of the Australian Qualifications Framework and training packages - and business objectives and thereby promoting workforce development. This case study research examined the roles, duties and key competencies of enterprise learning consultants, and the areas of professional development needed to develop new ELCs.
    • The nature of learning being facilitated by frontline managers [article, 2013]
      The research explores the role frontline managers play in promoting and facilitating learning at work. The results of this study suggest that frontline managers, who were considered leaders of learning within their respective organisations, take an instrumental approach to leading employee learning, that is, learning is seen largely as a mechanism for getting work done.
    • Workforce skills development and engagement in training through skill sets [2012]
      (Source: NCVER)
      Skill sets are a grouping of one or more competencies below the level of a full qualification that meet a client skills need, such as a licensing or compliance requirement or specific knowledge of an emerging area. A point of debate is the role that skills sets play compared to full qualifications, which are seen as the foundation of the VET system. Using a case study of agrifood students, this study investigated the use of skill sets by students enrolled in Rural Production Studies skill sets developed by TAFE NSW and those enrolled in the Diploma of Agriculture.
    • Workplace training: employer and employee perspectives [2017]
      (Source: NCVER)
      This summary highlights key findings from research which examined different aspects of employer-supported training.

    Focus on practice

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    Evidence based evaluation

    Free resources

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