What's new in Assessment

  • Examiner judgement in competency based assessment [webinar, international, 2020] [added 8 October 2020]
    (Presenter: Amy Wong, Queen's University Belfast)
    The session explores the consistency of examiners' judgements on the robustness of the decisions made in high-stakes summative competency-based assessment (CBA). Strategies for mitigating inconsistencies are explored. Examples from medical education are used.

Competency based training and assessment

Free resources

Research

  • Assessing in VET: issues of reliability and validity: review of research [1999]
    (Source: NCVER)
    This review of research reviews both the Australian discussion papers on reliability and validity of competency-based assessment as well as international empirical research in this field. The review discusses two types of competency-based assessment - paper-based objective testing techniques and performance assessments - as well as the implications for validity and reliability of each type of assessment. The review includes guidelines for establishing procedures to enhance reliability and validity.
  • Assessment practices at diploma and advanced diploma levels within training packages [2003]
    (Source: NCVER)
    This report investigates the conduct of assessments at diploma and advanced diploma levels. It highlights differences between four certificate levels and two diploma levels in terms of the competency standards, assessment environment and assessor skills. The research also identifies a number of actions which can improve the quality of assessments at diploma and advanced diploma levels.
  • Assessor training programs: review of research [1997]
    (Source: NCVER)
    Examines recent studies conducted into the area of assessor training. Issues brought to light include the background and skills required for assessor training, the effectiveness of recent program implementation, and whether assessor training programs are producing competent assessors.
    • Focussing on assessment: strategies for off-the-job teachers and trainers [1995]
      (Source: NCVER)
      A practical book/manual which focuses on the important components of assessment. It has been written to assist teachers and trainers in VET who are delivering training either in formal institutional settings or in training rooms.
      • Teaching, learning and assessment in TVET: the case for an ecology of assessment [2010]
        (Source: NCVER)
        This paper argues that assessment can play a central role in teaching and learning, and selecting an appropriate mix of assessment strategies can satisfy multiple goals of key stakeholders in vocational education and training.

      Focus on practice

      • Assessment gap analysis [2017]
        (Source: Education Compliance Validators)
        Lacking content in the assessment tool or methodology can seriously affect the quality of your training, assessment and ultimately the competency outcome of a student. Conducting a gap analysis is one way of ensuring all the holes are fixed and compliance is maintained against the unit and other standards that are to be adhered to.
      • Assessment in the VET sector [2016, 2nd edition]
        (Source: WA Department of Training and Workforce Development)
        This publication provides practitioners and other stakeholders in the vocational education and training sector in Western Australia with information on the processes and practices involved in an assessment system.
      • Australian Core Skills Framework (ACSF) assessment [2013-2019]
        (Source: Precision Consultancy)
        The ACSF provides a consistent national approach to the identification of language, literacy and numeracy skills requirements in diverse work, training, personal and community contexts, and is a common reference point for describing and discussing performance within the five core skill areas of Learning, Reading, Writing, Oral communication and Numeracy. The resources on this website have been developed with funding from the Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) program through the Department of Industry.
      • Designing assessment tools for quality outcomes in VET [2013, 4th edition]
        (Source: WA Department of Education and Training)
        This publication is designed to assist trainers and lecturers to design practical assessment tools that inspire confidence in the quality of the evidence that is collected and the judgements that lecturers make on the basis of that evidence.
      • E-assessment guidelines for the VET sector [2011]
        (Source: Australian Flexible Learning Framework; National Quality Council)
        These guidelines are designed to: promote quality e-assessment materials and practices that are consistent with the Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF); ensure that e-assessment materials are readily accessible across the VET system; and encourage further innovation in the design and deployment of e-assessment materials and systems.
      • Fact sheets
        • Assessment [2018]
          (Source: Training Accreditation Council, WA)
          An overview of assessment in vocational education and training, this fact sheet outlines aspects of assessment that are specified in the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015, as well as suggestions and guidance on how to meet those standards.
        • Assessment validation [2018]
          (Source: Training Accreditation Council, WA)
          This fact sheet is designed to give guidance and direction to RTOs in determining that their assessment system is meeting the requirements of the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015 for Clause 1.8, and for Clauses 1.9, 1.10 and 1.11. It does not fully address the requirements of Clause 1.25 and Schedule 2 of the Standards for RTOs, which relate to the independent validation of training and assessment qualifications.
        • Using other parties to collect assessment evidence [2016]
          (Source: Australian Quality Standards Authority)
          This factsheet includes a definition of evidence, examples of forms of evidence, when and why might an assessor use other parties to collect evidence, what to consider when using evidence collected by other parties, and details of two case-studies.
      • Guide to developing assessment tools [2015]
        (Source: Australian Quality Standards Authority)
        This guide is designed to assist registered training organisations (RTOs) and their assessors to develop practical assessment tools that: meet the requirements of the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015 and deliver skilled graduates who are job ready from day one.
      • Guidelines for assessing competence in VET [2013, 5th edition]
        (Source: WA Department of Training and Workforce Development)
        These guidelines have been written specifically for registered training organisations (RTOs) and organisations working in partnership with RTOs to provide them with clear and current information on national and state assessment policy and assessment processes. This information applies to training package qualifications and accredited courses with a vocational outcome.
      • Guidelines for developing and using e-assessments with vocational learners: project overview [2019]
        (Source: Ako Aotearoa - National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence, New Zealand)
        A team of vocational educators from three Institutes of Technology or Polytechnics (ITPs) and an iwi-led tertiary partnership have created a set of guidelines that can be used to support the development, implementation and evaluation of e-assessments for learning within vocational education. Seven sub-projects were developed, which implemented e-assessments for learning activities using a range of pedagogical approaches and digital tools.
      • Learning and teaching practice: assessing students: VET [2016]
        (Source: Charles Darwin University)
        Details and resources relating to the six steps in the assessment cycle:
        • plan assessment
        • validation and assessment review
        • gather evidence
        • assessment decisions
        • recording assessment decisions
        • assessing online
      • Resources, tools and FAQs
        (Source: WA Department of Training and Workforce Development)
        A range of resources and tools are available to assist VET practitioners, including:
        • good practice guides
        • RPL support for assessors and students
        • training package FAQs
        • teaching and learning resources formerly sold by WestOne Services
      • Understanding assessment
        (Source: Australian Skills Quality Authority, 2020)
        This video explains common regulatory questions associated with assessment and features a round-table discussion involving ASQA auditors and VET leaders.
      • Users' guide to the Standards for RTOs 2015, chapter 4: Training and assessment: Clauses 1.8 to 1.12 - Conduct effective assessment [2015]
        (Source: Australian Quality Standards Authority)
        The guide aims to help RTOs make sure their practices deliver a quality experience for every student at each stage of their 'journey' through the VET system.

      Access more items in VOCEDplus

      For purchase

      These are examples only of commercial producers of training and assessment resources. Inclusion on this list does not signify endorsement by NCVER.

      • Catapult eLearning
        Access e-Learning or online learning resources via a library of interactive learning content and online assessments.
      • Compliant Training Resources
        Purchase Certificate and Diploma vocational training and assessment resources for use in RTOs and TAFEs across Australia.
      • Eduworks Resources
        Provides ready-to-use and easy-to-customise assessment kits for a wide range of nationally recognised qualifications and units.
      • Enhance Your Future
        Provides training resources for over 2500 units of competency. Each package includes a learner resource, assessment resources, PowerPoint presentations, an assessors guide and a mapping guide.
      • E-Skills Australia
        • RTO Assessment Tools
          These assessment tools have been developed from an academic and compliance perspective - specifically designed for classroom-based, face-to-face, structured training and assessment. Assessments are designed based on classroom hours, i.e. aligned with the unit hours and a 20-hour week delivery schedule. Assessment tools are supported by detailed lesson plans, competency/unit information, delivery plan, assessment plan, checklists/marking guide and competency record sheet, and competency/unit mapping - all contained in a Trainer's Guide and a Learner's Guide. Supporting resources/readings are provided where available.
      • LRES Training Management
        Provides a range of training and assessment materials across a number of training packages including:
        • AHC10 – Agriculture, Horticulture and Conservation and Land Management
        • AUR – Automotive Retail, Service and Repair
        • BSB07/BSB – Business Services
        • CPC08 – Construction, Plumbing and Services
        • HLT – Health
        • MSA07 – Manufacturing
        • RII – Resources and Infrastructure Industry
        • SIH11 – Hairdressing Training Package
        • TLI10 – Transport and Logistics
        • UEE11 – Electrotechnology
      • Pearson vocational learning and teaching resources
        Purchase teaching and learning resources to support a wide range of vocational disciplines, including texts, eTexts and assessment resources.
      • RTO Materials
        Purchase Australian VET training materials for units, qualifications or training packages.
      • Smallprint
        Access training materials and assessment tools covering over 1,150 units, 140 qualifications and 12 training packages. Assessment tools can include:
        • an assessment plan template
        • formative and summative assessments, activities, questions and projects
        • observation reports
        • a third-party evidence collection agreement
        • a third-party evidence collection tool
        • an evidence summary sheet
      • Total VET Training Resources
        Search the RTO Learning Resources and Assessment Tools Catalogue for training and assessment resources for over 30 different training packages.
      • Training and assessment: theory and practice [book, 2018]
        (Source: Cengage)
        Covers all core units and essential elective units of TAE40116 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment. It takes both theoretical and pragmatic approaches to help learners gain essential knowledge and skills through solid and well-researched theories by respected authors. Each chapter is a self-contained unit that offers sufficient volume of learning and volume of assessment to support delivery of training and assessment.
      • Training Tools
        Purchase the assessment template bundle - a range of templates to assist RTOs in developing their own compliant assessment materials (note that the individual products are also available for purchase as separate items):
      • Velg Assessment Resources
        • Courses
        • Resources 
        • Webinars 
          • Conducting Assessment Using Project Oriented Tasks
            Recorded on 23/03/2018 this session discussed project based assessment tasks which can be one of the most efficient and compliant forms of assessment. The session explores how these assessment tasks can be established to support realistic assessment whilst integrating multiple units into fewer assessment tasks overall.
          • Designing Compliant Online Assessment
            Recorded on 04/12/2018 and forming part of Velg Training's Focus Week on eLearning, this webinar showcased all you need to know about creating compliant online assessments.
          • Developing Effective Assessment Questions
            Recorded on 08/11/2018, this webinar provided guidance in developing different types of questions for use in knowledge assessments.
          • Efficient Marking Guides: Tips to getting it right
            Recorded on 07/08/2018, this webinar provided all the tips to getting it right that you need when it comes to efficient and effective assessment marking guides.
          • Most Common Assessment Issues Identified by ASQA
            Recorded on 11/07/2018, this webinar identified the most common causes and effects of non-compliance across vocational assessment and provides a simplistic solution to getting it right. You’ll be surprised!
          • Plan Assessment Activities and Processes
            Recorded on 22/10/2018 as part of National VET PD Week, this webinar was a refresher for all assessors in how they should plan to conduct assessment and to apply the assessment process.
          • Systematic Validation of Assessment : What Are You Checking?
            Recorded on 07/11/2018, this webinar looked at a range of assessment validation components as ‘best practice’ opportunities that inform continuously improved assessment services.
          • Understanding the Principles of Assessment and the Rules of Evidence
            Recorded on 25/10/2018 as part of National VET PD Week, this webinar unpacked what it means in practice, to implement a system that ensures that assessment (including recognition of prior learning) is conducted in accordance with the principles of assessment and the rules of evidence.
          • Validation Planning that Works
            Recorded on 4/07/2018. In this webinar, John Price considers a range of items that can support planning and preparing for a singular validation event.
        • Further resources can be found in the Knowledge Hub – search on Assessment
      • VET Assessment Validation Services
        Services available include: assessment reviews; mapping of assessments to the unit of competency; validation of mapping; validation of assessment tools pre-implementation/pre-delivery; validation as required by the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015 (which may require a panel approach to post-assessment validation); and validation of recently purchased materials to confirm compliance and/or suitability for use.
      • vetr 
        • Assessment Tools Templates Pack
          The Assessment Tools Templates Pack is designed to assist VET Providers in developing and implementing robust assessment tools and practices in line with the VET regulatory framework.
        • Study Tips Guide
          The Study Tips Guide may assist VET Providers with a first step in these services in providing a handy ready-to-use guide on common study strategies for vocational students.
        • Training and Assessment Strategy Pack
          The Training and Assessment Strategy Pack has been designed to assist VET Providers in reviewing documentation and practices in line with the regulatory framework.
        • Validation Practices Support Pack
          The Standards for RTOs 2015 require significant review and amendment of Validation policies, procedures and practices. Particularly, validation of assessment arrangements remains one of the key areas of focus in the VET sector. The Validation Practices Support Pack has been designed to assist VET Providers in identifying and implementing validation practices in line with the regulatory framework.
        • VET Essentials Series
          The VET Essentials Series provides short digital video micro-learning updates on Australian VET sector key concepts and practices.
        • VET How-To! Series
          vetr's 'How-To' digital video short course series progressively tackles many topics in Australia's VET sector, going beyond the summaries and basics to look in more detail at how to apply concepts and complete tasks in the daily work of a VET Practitioner.

      Recognition of prior learning

      Overview

      'Recognition of prior learning is an assessment process that involves assessment of an individual’s relevant prior learning (including formal, informal and non-formal learning) to determine the credit outcomes of an individual application for credit.'
      (Source: Australian Qualifications Framework Council, 2012).

      Free resources

      Research

      • Assessing and acknowledging learning through non-accredited community adult language, literacy and numeracy programs
        (Source: NCVER, 2008)
        Ways of assessing and acknowledging the range of outcomes in non-accredited community adult language, literacy and numeracy programs are explored in this study. The instruments it tested take account of the diversity of learner needs and motivations. The study highlights that these assessment methods can bring benefits both to the learner and the tutor, especially when they are completed jointly in ways that inform learning plans and aim at building self-confidence.
      • Exploring the recognition of prior learning in Australian VET
        (Source: NCVER, 2020)
        Recognition of prior learning (RPL) in the Australian VET system is the process of assessing someone's relevant prior learning and existing skills to grant formal recognition. RPL is an important mechanism for people with pre-existing skills to gain formal recognition. There are however known issues with RPL, as it can be costly and difficult to offer as a training provider. This new report from NCVER explores the nature of RPL that is taking place in Australia from a variety of dimensions.
      • Making skills transparent: recognising vocational skills acquired through workbased learning [Europe]
        (Source: OECD, 2018)
        This paper looks at the importance of mechanisms that give formal recognition to vocational skills acquired through work-based learning and how such mechanisms might be developed.

      Focus on practice

      • Credit and recognition of prior learning
        (Source: Queensland Department of Employment, Small Business and Training)
        Overview and resources credit for previous service or recognition of prior learning relating to an apprenticeship or traineeship.
      • Early Childhood qualifications - Recognition of prior learning (RPL) assessment toolkits
        (Source: Department of Education and Training)
        These toolkits are designed to make the assessment of RPL easier for people studying early childhood qualifications.
      • Fact sheets
      • Recognition of prior learning FAQs
        (Source: Australian Skills Quality Authority)
        Answers to questions regarding RPL in relation to the Standards for Registered Training Organisations 2015.
      • Recognition of prior learning (RPL) [2018]
        (Source: Training Services NSW)
        Provides guides that step training providers, candidates, assessors and employers through the recognition process.
      • Recognition of prior learning (RPL) and credit transfer within VET courses
        (Source: Education Standards Authority, NSW Government)
        Overview and resources for secondary students to have their previous learning – both formal and informal – count towards Stage 5 (Year 9 or 10) or Stage 6 (HSC) VET courses and AQF VET qualifications.
      • Recognition of prior learning: an assessment resource for VET practitioners [2013]
        (Source: WA Department of Training and Workforce Development)
        This guide provides RTOs with current information on RPL within VET assessment strategies.
      • Recognition of prior learning (RPL): a practitioners guide [2015]
        (Source: Russell Savage and Cath Stephensen, RPL Solutions)
        This guide provides a platform for the professional development of people working with RPL processes. The guide:
        • outlines the benefits of RPL
        • helps to explain RPL terminology, roles and processes
        • advises and provides tips on RPL professional practice
        • assists VET practitioners to critically reflect upon their RPL practice
        • helps VET practitioners to become better RPL practitioners
      • Recognition of prior learning (RPL): learning package [international]
        (Source: ILO, 2018)
        This learning package on recognition of prior learning (RPL) is directed at a broad and mixed audience, including ILO constituents, senior government officials, employers' and workers' organizations, United Nations (UN) system staff and staff of other multilateral or regional organizations, bilateral agencies, relevant non-governmental organizations, public employment services and private employment agencies, senior officials of education and training institutions and RPL managers, assessors and facilitators. The modular structure (consisting of six learning units) offers improved targeting to different groups of participants. Units can also be used as standalone sessions, depending on the participant group. The learning package provides information, insight and learning through real-life examples from developing and developed countries. It highlights gender diversity and disadvantaged groups. The package is designed to be used in self-organized training sessions to assist the trainers, facilitators and experts involved. It assumes that those involved in its delivery have a sound understanding of RPL, as well as some experience as a facilitator/trainer.
      • Resources, tools and FAQs
        (Source: WA Department of Training and Workforce Development)
        Presents a range of resources and tools to assist VET practitioners, including RPL support for assessors and students:
        • RPL for RTOs and assessors – Frequently asked questions
        • RPL for students – Frequently asked questions
        • RPL template

      Access more items in VOCEDplus

      For purchase

      These are examples only of commercial producers of training and assessment resources. Inclusion on this list does not signify endorsement by NCVER.

      • Compliant Training Resources
        Purchase RPL assessment kits and RPL assessment tools for use in RTOs and TAFEs across Australia.
      • Eduworks Resources
        Eduworks supplies RPL assessment kits that are candidate and assessor friendly so they ease the burden of RPL on all parties. The RPL assessment kits ensure RPL processes are valid and that candidates are assessed against all unit requirements.
      • E-Skills Australia 
        • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) Kits
          Provided under licence by E-Skills Australia's group company, Skillworks Australia, comprehensive RPL kits are available for a range of courses/qualifications that include actual RPL assessments. The kit typically contains: RPL context and underlying principles; Pre-training review and context; Candidate information (self-assessment, forms, evidence guide, RPL process, documentation, evidences, application); Assessor information (Competency requirements, pre-training review, interview record, competency conversation, practical tasks, gap training assessment, evidence review); RPL assessment tools; and RPL decision and evidence summary. Kits can also be developed for any desired course/qualification with BSB, FNS, ICT and SIT packages.
      • RPL Solutions
        Offers RPL123, an online RPL software solution designed for RTOs to manage and support RPL candidates through a quality, interactive RPL assessment process with compliant RPL assessment instruments for any qualification.
      • RTO Training Resources
        RPL Kits are available in courses relating to Automotive, Business, Building and Construction, Food Processing, Information and Communications Technology, Engineering, Hospitality Management, Logistics, and Electrotechnology.
      • Total VET Training Resources
        Purchase RPL assessment kits - each containing RPL Assessment Workbooks, RPL Assessor Guides, RPL Candidate Guides, and an RPL Assessment Mapping Tool.
        Kits are available for the following courses:
        • BSB41415 Certificate IV in Work Health and Safety
        • CHC33015 Certificate III in Individual Support
      • Velg Training
        Velg Training provides members with a range of toolkits, templates, and access to webinars, including Industry RPL Tool Kits and Professional Development Resources from the SkillsFirst RPL Project.
        Search the Knowledge Hub for RPL Assessor Kit resources.
      • vetr
        • Assessment Tools Templates Pack
          The Assessment Tools Templates Pack is designed to assist VET Providers in developing and implementing robust assessment tools and practices in line with the VET regulatory framework.
        • RPL Essentials
          Cover the basics of recognition of prior learning in this short video micro learning update on RPL concepts and practices in the Australian VET sector. Key tips to ensure your organisation has a robust and scalable recognition approach.

      Portfolios and e-portfolios

      Free resources

      Research

      • Portfolio assessment in vocational education: the assessor's view [journal article, 1998]
        (Source: Zita M. Wagner, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 23, no. 2)
        The portfolio has much to offer in terms of involving vocational education students in the assessment process and in documenting their achievements. From the assessor's point of view, the use of portfolios raises issues of reliability, the time consuming nature of assessment, objectivity and authenticity of the work. In this paper, 24 Australian vocational educators and trainers from a range of teaching areas discuss portfolio assessments from an assessor's perspective. Issues covered are: advantages and disadvantages; how to determine sufficiency of evidence and authenticity of the work; and recommendations for the successful use of portfolios in vocational education, including the skills educators and trainers need to assess portfolios.

      Focus on practice

      • Assessing with ePortfolios
        (Source: UNSW)
        Although produced by a university, this website provides useful information on what e-portfolios are, when to use them, the benefits, the challenges and relevant strategies.
      • Assessment: portfolio [2009, Hong Kong]
        (Source: C. Chan, Assessment Resources@HKU, University of Hong Kong)
        This resource covers:
        • What is a portfolio?
        • Structure of portfolio assessment
        • Advantages of portfolio
        • Disadvantages of portfolio
        • How to design a good portfolio assessment
        • Marking rubrics
      • Australia ePortfolio Project [2010]
        The Australia ePortfolio Project was funded by the Australian Federal Government Office of Learning and Teaching (OLT later ALTC) in three stages concluding in 2010. This website presents all resources associated with the research project.
      • e-Portfolio [US]
        (Source: Berkeley Center for Teaching and Learning, US)
        This website provides links to tools, examples, and resources.
      • ePortfolios Australia
        A professional network which aims to support the use of e-portfolios in Australia and beyond through professional development activities and the sharing of resources, ideas and practice.
      • ePortfolios explained: theory and practice [Canada]
        (Source: University of Waterloo, Canada)
        This resource describes what ePortfolios are, looks at the learning theory behind ePortfolios, as well as types of ePortfolios, best practices for instructors, and assessment of ePortfolios.
      • International Journal of ePortfolio
        A free, peer-reviewed journal that publishes twice a year.
      • Learning e-portfolio [2018]
        (Source: Edutech wiki)
        Contents include:
        • Definition
        • Why e-portfolios?
        • Types and stages of portfolios
        • History of web-based e-portfolios
        • Assessment and evaluation of an electronic portfolio
        • Software and standards
      • The e-portfolio implementation toolkit [2012]
        (Source: JISC, UK)
        This toolkit is designed to support those involved in the implementation of e-portfolios in higher (HE) and further education (FE) and work-based learning: practitioners planning to use e-portfolios in curriculum design and middle and senior managers addressing strategy and policy issues and challenges relating to the introduction of technologies for learning.  It provides an implementation model and guidance.

      Access more items in VOCEDplus

      Work placements

      Free resources

      Focus on practice

      • Academic assessment of work placement - made easy? [international, 2009]
        (Source: Karen King, Queen’s University, Belfast)
        This presentation covers:
        • Why is assessment of work placement difficult?
        • How these difficulties can be overcome
        • Teaching, learning and assessment
        • Learning outcomes
        • Examples of assessment
      • Assessing work-integrated learning programs: a guide to effective assessment design
        The purpose of this guide from the Centre for Research in Assessment and Digital Learning at Deakin University, is to foster high quality assessment practice in formally assessed work-integrated learning (WIL) programs.
      • Work-based assessment [international, 2016]
        (Source: JISC, UK)
        This guide covers the importance of work-based assessment; common problems; the benefits of using technology; how work-based assessment relates to the lifecycle; and links to useful resources.

      Access more items in VOCEDplus

      For purchase

      These are examples only of commercially available products. Inclusion on this list does not signify endorsement by NCVER.

      • Vetr Work Placement Booklet
        The Work Placement Booklet resource template has been designed to assist VET Providers in implementing robust work placement arrangements and includes the use of other parties while the work placement occurs for the evidence collection process.
      • Work Placement Record Book
        (Source: Training Tools)
        This product provides an example template and framework upon which to base a Work Placement Record Book suitable for use in your RTO.

      Related VOCEDplus resources