Search results

Advanced search   My selection

Do higher education institutions make a difference in competence development?: a model of competence production at university

This paper proposes a model of competence development required of graduates at work which suggests that universities make a difference when they add value to their students. They add value by ensuring that their modes of teaching and learning, and assessment positively enhance the competencies of their students which are important in the labor market. [The] results have clear implications for policy in the Bologna process. One of the main challenges facing higher education institutions in Europe is to transform their current pedagogical practices - the lecture continues to be the dominant teaching method - into competence-based teaching as a response of universities to labor market needs. In this paper, econometric evidence shows that innovative methodologies used by Spanish universities play a key role in competence development. This is consistent with the view that education raises productivity; a finding that refutes some theories which suggest that education may be no more than a screening device which allows employers to identify the more able potential employees from the rest. Besides the importance of formal academic institutions, firms appear to be sources of learning and skill formation as well.

This paper proposes a model of competence development required of graduates at work which suggests that universities make a ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Velasco, Manuel Salas
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Spain; Europe
Journal title: Higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Employment; Research;

VITAL Object

The impact of within country heterogeneity in vocational specificity on initial job matches and job status

This paper analyses the impact of vocational specificity on school-to-work transitions in terms of initial job mismatches and socioeconomic status at the individual level. Considering heterogeneity amongst the various qualifications in Austria, the study finds that the positive impact of specificity on initial labour market placement known from cross-country research also holds within the highly stratified Austrian system in which various vocational specialisations are provided at the upper secondary level. Independent of the level and field of the qualification obtained, vocational specificity facilitates initial labour market placement, resulting in a reduced mismatch risk and an increase in initial jobs status. In the course of subsequent labour market adjustments, however, holders of general qualifications attain higher status gains when changing jobs. Likewise, the overqualified can make up for a good part of their initial status penalty on labour market entrance through job changes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

This paper analyses the impact of vocational specificity on school-to-work transitions in terms of initial job mismatches ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Vogtenhuber, Stefan
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Austria; Europe
Journal title: Journal of vocational behavior
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Vocational education and training; Providers of education and training; Secondary education;

VITAL Object

Commonwealth controls over Australian schools, TAFEs and universities via tied funding: time for Constitutional reform?

A matter of some controversy in schools, TAFEs and universities has been the advent of significant controls over these state and territory law bodies by the Commonwealth Government, based on the supply of grants linked to conditions. Under the previous Howard Government the conditions required significant workplace reforms (including Australian Workplace Agreements) at the university and TAFE level. Commonwealth grants for state and private schools contain conditions relating to curriculum, school reports, statements of learning, and various school performance targets. Such controls were never envisaged for the Commonwealth in the Constitution. This paper examines in some detail the conditions imposed on schools, TAFE and universities, describes the constitutional position relating to regulation of education by the Commonwealth, including the potential use of the corporations power, and makes suggestions for reform.

A matter of some controversy in schools, TAFEs and universities has been the advent of significant controls over these state ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Jackson, Jim
Date: 2008
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Australia and New Zealand journal of law and education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Governance; Providers of education and training;

VITAL Object

College access, initial college choice and degree completion

Estimating the impact of initial college choice on student outcomes is confounded by the nonrandom nature of college selection. Using the universe of SAT takers in the high school classes of 2004-07, [the authors] identify two new contexts where admission test score thresholds provide exogenous variation in access to four-year colleges. [The authors] study Georgia's state university system, whose thresholds are public, and other colleges whose threshold use is not public but can be detected in [the] data. A regression discontinuity design comparing the relatively low-skilled students just above and below these thresholds yields two main findings. First, in both settings, missing these thresholds diverts students into two-year colleges or less selective four-year colleges, suggesting that college choices are narrowed by failure to take low cost steps like retesting or applying more widely. Second, missing these thresholds reduces bachelor's degree completion rates, particularly for low income students. [The authors] argue this is clear evidence of a college quality effect, as some students are diverted from four-year colleges from which they are capable of graduating.

Estimating the impact of initial college choice on student outcomes is confounded by the nonrandom nature of college ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Goodman, Joshua; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Resource type: Working paper
Series name: HKS faculty research working paper series
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Participation; Equity;

VITAL Object

Aid to skills development: case study on Japan's foreign aid program

Japan's aid emphasizes the importance of human resources development and self-help efforts based on its own experience. This fundamental belief is reflected into dual objectives of skills development to contribute to both promotion of growth and improving the living conditions of the disadvantaged. Two cases of skills development projects are presented, one in post-conflict Southern Sudan, another to develop a regional hub of training center in Senegal, each representing a different objective. They provide ideas on how Japanese assistance in this area can respond to challenging needs by study-based designing and building of a partnership among key stakeholders, and how it helps build institutional capacity through long-term assistance.

Japan's aid emphasizes the importance of human resources development and self-help efforts based on its own experience. This ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shoko
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Japan; Asia; Africa;
Resource type: Paper
Series name: Background paper (Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012)
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Providers of education and training; Economics;

VITAL Object

School career development service: benchmarking resource

Career development services are defined in the National Career Development Strategy 2013 as including career education, career exploration, career information, career advice and career guidance. In a school setting, career development services can be provided by professional or teaching staff in a variety of ways and settings, for example: individual counselling sessions between a career development practitioner and a student; classroom learning that is made relevant to potential careers; experiential learning; careers information days; production of up to date careers information; or discussions with industry, educational and employer representatives. This resource has been developed for principals and leadership teams of schools to help them get the best value and outcomes from their career development services. The resource describes the features of a contemporary school-based career development service and sets out progressive performance benchmarks that enable schools to review their service delivery.

Career development services are defined in the National Career Development Strategy 2013 as including career education, ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA)
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Resource type: Guide
Subjects: Career development; Providers of education and training; Quality

VITAL Object

Regulation of international education: Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand have many thousands of international students studying across all sectors. In both countries these students represent a significant source of overseas funds and contribute enormously to the cultural life of each country. This article examines the requirements under Australian and New Zealand law governing international students to determine whether these provide adequate safeguards for international students at all education levels.

Australia and New Zealand have many thousands of international students studying across all sectors. In both countries these ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Jackson, Jim
Date: 2005
Geographic subjects: Australia; New Zealand; Oceania
Journal title: Australia and New Zealand journal of law and education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Governance; Higher education; International education;

VITAL Object

Critical interactions shaping early academic career development in two higher education institutions

This study was aimed at identifying the critical interactions within work environments that support the development of early career academics as researchers in institutions with lower order research profiles, that is, environments that differ from research-intensive universities. Ten early career academics, five from Australia and five from the UK, were recruited. Multiple sources of data were subjected to a qualitative analysis from which five interrelated themes identified the features of the research journeys: institutional environment, individual attributes, postgraduate and other research training, supportive interactions with others, and outcomes from the research process. A key finding was that individuals differ in their need for redirection, support, challenge, and inspiration which may be important at any time but especially at turning points in their career. Actions that might be taken by those responsible for implementing plans and programs in professional learning and development for early career academics are outlined. This study offers empirical evidence of the changes that are significant for individual neophyte researchers, and the environments and interactions that influence these changes.

This study was aimed at identifying the critical interactions within work environments that support the development of early ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug; Sharp, John
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania; Great Britain;
Journal title: Issues in educational research
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Career development; Research;

VITAL Object

From labor shortage to labor surplus: the changing labor market context and its meaning for higher education

Triggered by a crisis in the American financial system, the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth. These losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market, causing sharp declines in payroll employment levels in the nation and most states. Higher education's link to the job market has become quite important in recent years, as rising returns to college endowments have fueled increases in both enrollment and real tuition and fees. Over the foreseeable future, it appears likely that the earnings levels and the size of the earnings advantages among new college graduates will fall as the excess labor supply - even in the college labor market - becomes the basic economic and labor market context in which higher education operates. Colleges and universities must adjust to a new labor market environment that is different in fundamental ways by regrouping and re-organizing their resources to more effectively respond to the new labor surplus context that will characterize the nation's labor markets in the next decade.

Triggered by a crisis in the American financial system, the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
Date: 2009
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Continuing higher education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Labour market; Providers of education and training;

VITAL Object

Is adult education a 'white' business?: professionals with migrant backgrounds in Austrian adult education

This paper is based on an applied research project, which examines the participation of migrants (first and second generation) as professionals in Austrian adult education. [The authors] present selected outcomes concerning barriers and encouraging factors in the careers of professionals with a migrant background. [The authors'] main findings show the importance of the recognition of credentials, of social capital and of strategies to avoid discrimination on behalf of the institutions of adult education. Introducing the analytical perspective of critical whiteness, [the authors] conclude that Austrian adult education still has to reflect its own role in terms of white privileges. Finally [the authors] point out some approaches and strategies to widening participation and reducing discrimination in the professional field.

This paper is based on an applied research project, which examines the participation of migrants (first and second ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Kukovetz, Brigitte; Sprung, Annette
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Austria; Europe
Journal title: European journal for research on the education and learning of adults
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Adult and community education; Providers of education and training; Migration;

VITAL Object