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A loss of 'white' male privilege?: gender and ethnic dimensions of domestic student participation in bachelor degree studies

Population growth means an increasing number of young people are likely to want to enrol in bachelor degree study. However, constrained government finances have led to the government capping funding. The result is that many education providers are restricting entry to courses. One way to restrict entry is to set academic requirements that are higher than the university entrance requirements. However, institutions, as well as many people in wider society, recognise the need to support diversity and social justice within education and ensure no groups are significantly under-represented. While this paper is built around the question of whether European men have shifted from over-representation to under-representation in bachelor degree study, ultimately it is about identifying which groups face the greatest barriers to bachelor level study. Historically, those groups most under-represented in bachelor degree study were women, Maori, and Pasifika. Now, women are significantly over-represented in most areas of study. Overall, women have higher levels of academic achievement, so are more likely to gain entry to bachelors study than men. However, Maori and Pasifika women remain significantly under-represented on some measures and European men are either strongly or slightly under-represented depending on what measure is used. The groups most clearly under-represented on all key measures are Maori and Pasifika males.

Population growth means an increasing number of young people are likely to want to enrol in bachelor degree study. However, ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Callister, Paul
Date: 2010
Geographic subjects: New Zealand; Oceania
Resource type: Working paper
Series name: Institute of Policy Studies working paper
Subjects: Gender; Demographics; Participation;

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Eliminating educational inequality through e-learning: the case of Virtual University of Pakistan

This study aims at examining the role of e-learning in combating the issues of inequality in terms of access and quality in the field of higher education in Pakistan. The education system in Pakistan is mainly characterized by educational disparity. The standard of education is directly proportional to the investment students make in the form of registration and fees. Another important issue is the non-availability of reputed educational institutes in small towns and villages. Unfortunately, very few people from rural areas have access to quality higher education. Virtual University of Pakistan through its distance e-learning mode has come forward to break this trend in social inequality by providing equal educational opportunities to all social classes through its affordable fee structure yet ensuring high standards of teaching.

This study aims at examining the role of e-learning in combating the issues of inequality in terms of access and quality in ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Din, Aisha Muhammad; Jabeen, Sadia
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Pakistan; Asia
Journal title: Open praxis
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Equity; Higher education; Teaching and learning;

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Assessing graduate attributes: building a criteria-based competency model

Graduate attributes (GAs) have become a necessary framework of reference for the 21st century competency-based model of higher education. However, the issue of evaluating and assessing GAs still remains uncharted territory. In this article, [the authors] present a criteria-based method of assessment that allows for an institution-wide comparison of the various acquisition levels of different GAs. In order to achieve this, [the authors] first propose an understanding of GAs as knowledge, skills and attitude constructs, which directly impacts the operational development of GA scales. Second, after briefly discussing some shortcomings in current assessment/evaluation tests for GAs, [the authors] present the many features of the criteria-based model for assessing GAs, such as the importance of the proper interpretation of GAs as can-do statements, a theory-based development of the abstract categories that make up a scale for GA assessment and concrete examples of GA scales based on these abstract theories.

Graduate attributes (GAs) have become a necessary framework of reference for the 21st century competency-based model of ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Ipperciel, Donald; ElAtia, Samira
Date: 2014
Journal title: International journal of higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Higher education; Skills and knowledge;

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Assessment challenges in open learning: way-finding, fork in the road, or end of the line?

Growing global commitments to open learning through the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) are accompanied by concerns over what 'to do' with that learning when learners present it to traditional institutions for assessment and accreditation. This paper proposes that established RPL (recognizing prior learning) protocols, in place at many institutions worldwide, can offer a pedagogically sound framework that supports the spirit of open learning and respects the diversity of learners' efforts.

Growing global commitments to open learning through the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) are accompanied by concerns ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Conrad, Dianne
Date: 2013
Journal title: Open praxis
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Teaching and learning; Pathways; Assessment;

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The work values of first year Spanish university students

This study analyzes the work values of 2,951 first-year university students in Spain enrolled in degree programs within the five major areas of university studies. For [this] research, participants were asked to respond to a Scale of Work Values in which intrinsic, social, and pragmatic extrinsic values as well as extrinsic values related to geographic mobility are differentiated. [The] findings show these students to have high levels of intrinsic and pragmatic extrinsic values as well as differences that vary according to their gender, major area of study and their chosen study program. By means of cluster analysis, [the authors] have also identified seven distinct types of students aligned with the work values under study. This paper explores the implications of this study for the development of work values and the education of students at the university level as well as the study's possible utility as a means of providing orientation to students that will prepare them better for their entry into the labor market.

This study analyzes the work values of 2,951 first-year university students in Spain enrolled in degree programs within the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Cortes-Pascual, P. A.; Cano-Escoriaza, J.; Orejudo, S.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Spain; Europe
Journal title: Higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Higher education; Employment;

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Open access in higher education: strategies for engaging diverse student cohorts

With growth in online education, students gain tertiary qualifications through a mode more suited to their demographics such as work and life balance, learning styles and geographical accessibility. Inevitably this has led to a growth in diversity within student cohorts. The case study described in this paper illustrates strategies based on informed learning design for educating diverse student cohorts in an online program offered by Swinburne University of Technology. The case, an open-access, undergraduate information systems program, attracts mature age students studying while balancing employment and family commitments. The program's open-access facet is the 'no entry requirements' such as prerequisite studies. Hence, many students enter the program via non-traditional pathways bringing significant differences in experience and consequent skill bases. The program's innovative pedagogy encourages students to engage via active learning with tailored assessments, interactive communication via discussion boards and facilitated real-time sessions and formative feedback which include audio components.

With growth in online education, students gain tertiary qualifications through a mode more suited to their demographics such ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Signor, Luisa; Moore, Catherine
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Victoria; Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Open praxis
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Equity; Participation;

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Year 12 student choices: a survey on factors influencing Year 12 decision-making on post-school destination, choice of university and preferred subject

The Year 12 Student Choices survey was designed to obtain up-to-date information on the relative importance of factors influencing Year 12 students' decision making - both those who intend to go to university and those who do not. The report is based on survey data collected from 3,212 Year 12 students from across Australia. Some of the key findings include: the majority of Year 12 respondents expressed a preference for studying at university, either immediately upon completing their secondary studies (53 per cent) or following a gap year (19 per cent); the level of students' interest in university study varies among different disadvantaged groups - students from non-metropolitan regions and from low socioeconomic status backgrounds show lower levels of interest in university but greater levels of interest in TAFE or New Apprenticeships; while the focus of the study is on university, there are important findings on the reasons for choosing vocational education and training (VET), work or other pathways - students not intending to go to university were likely to perceive enrolling in vocational education or training or engaging in work as better options for their future careers; and this study confirms the findings of earlier research (e.g. James, Baldwin and McInnis, 1999), that, for those planning to go to university, choice of course rather than institution appears to play a more important role in forming student preferences.

The Year 12 Student Choices survey was designed to obtain up-to-date information on the relative importance of factors ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Australia. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR)
Roy Morgan Research
Date: 2009
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Youth; Research; Career development;

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Who are Australia's information educators?

In recent years, there has been considerable discussion of the challenges facing the future of information education in Australia. This paper reports a study that explored the characteristics and experiences of Australia's information educators. The study was undertaken as part of a larger project, which was designed to establish a consolidated and holistic picture of the Australian information profession and identify how its future education could be mediated in a cohesive and sustainable manner. Sixty-nine of Australia's information educators completed an online questionnaire that gathered data on aspects such as age, gender, rank, qualifications, work activities and job satisfaction. The key findings from this study confirm that a number of pressing issues are confronting information educators in Australia. For example, Australia's information educators are considerably older than that of the total Australian academic workforce; over half the information educators who participated in the study are looking to retire in the next 10 years; and Australia's information educators spend more time on service activities than members of other disciplines within Australia's education system and place a stronger importance on teaching over research. Left unaddressed, these issues will have significant implications for the future of information education as well as the broader information profession. Many of the key observations drawn from this study may also have relevance to other disciplines in the Australian educational context.

In recent years, there has been considerable discussion of the challenges facing the future of information education in ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Partridge, Helen; Hider, Philip; Burford, Sally;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Australian library journal
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Industry; Research;

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Institutional barriers for adults' participation in higher education in thirteen European countries

This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. [The authors] developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe [the authors] then explored the impact of macro-level institutional factors on the formation of the barriers by national welfare state arrangements. [The authors] found that perceived barriers are the lowest in liberal and social democratic countries but highest in post-soviet ones, with other post-socialist countries and continental ones in between. While perception of various barriers can be lessened by increasing flexibility of the educational programmes, [the authors'] findings still show that the level of perceived barriers remains high also in flexible systems, hence other characteristics of higher education systems seem to be of more relevance. Higher education diversification and better affordability of the higher education system seems to predict a lower level of institutional barriers for adult learners, indicating that these are the crucial aspects. [The] study serves as a baseline for further studies on the effects of changes that have been put in place since, especially regarding the variety of national responses.

This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Saar, Ellu; Taht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe; Norway; Slovenia;
Journal title: Higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Participation; Students; Providers of education and training;

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The Year 9 class of 1998 in 2004

This report provides details of the experiences of the 1998 Year 9 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth [LSAY]. Information on this cohort was first collected in 1998, when these young people were Year 9 students in Australian schools. The reference period for this report is October 2004, when the modal age of respondents was 21 years. Highlights in the report include: in 2004, 35 per cent of members of the cohort were participating in full-time tertiary study at a university or TAFE institution; a further three per cent of cohort members were engaged in part-time study at university or TAFE; 11 per cent were undertaking an apprenticeship or traineeship, or were engaged in some other form of study, including short courses; 50 per cent were not enrolled in education or training in October 2004, an increase of 10 per cent from 2003; 19 per cent of cohort members had not participated in any formal post-school study; 19 per cent of cohort members in 2004 had completed a post-secondary qualification, nine percentage points more than reported in 2003; 48 per cent of the 1998 Year 9 LSAY cohort were employed full-time, including four per cent who were also studying full-time at university or TAFE; 37 per cent of cohort members were employed part-time; 77 per cent of cohort members were living with either one or both of their parents, representing a decrease of four percentage points since 2003; the vast majority of cohort members reported high levels of satisfaction with various aspects of their lives, including their life as a whole, their relationships with others and their standard of living; and cohort members also expressed high levels of satisfaction with their future and their career prospects.

This report provides details of the experiences of the 1998 Year 9 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Underwood, Catherine
Date: 2005
Geographic subjects: Oceania; Australia
Resource type: Report
Series name: LSAY cohort report
Subjects: Youth; Apprenticeship; Traineeship;

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