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Geographical and place dimensions of post-school participation in education and work

Aspirations have been shown to be a key influence on young people's engagement with post-school education and training. This research explores how aspirations are affected by where a young person lives. It finds that young people are significantly influenced by their educational and career 'inheritance'. By encountering educational cultures (new ideas or experiences) different from their own they are more likely to make life choices divergent from those they 'inherit'. Vocational education and training (VET) provides an essential pathway of choice to further education and work but the difference in status between VET and university pathways is an enduring issue. As has been identified in previous research, practical and financial constraints significantly impact on young people's aspirations and opportunities, while a particular concern for young people in regional and outer urban areas is tolerable travel to study distances.

Aspirations have been shown to be a key influence on young people's engagement with post-school education and training. This ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Webb, Sue; Black, Rosalyn; Morton, Ruth;
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: Oceania; Australia
Resource type: Report
Series name: National Vocational Education and Training Research Program research report
Subjects: Youth; Participation; Vocational education and training;

VITAL Object

Strengthening the 'work' in Federal Work-Study: improving access to financial aid and career-related work experience for low-income and post-traditional students

Low-income students must increasingly rely on work (and loans) to meet the high costs of college. Too often, though, the jobs they take are not in their field of study, which can impair the potential for career exploration and improved employment outcomes in the future. Despite the need to combine work and school in a meaningful way - particularly for low-income and post-traditional students - only a limited number of students have been able to finance a portion of their education through one of the oldest forms of financial assistance and largest subsidized work programs in the US: the Federal Work-Study (FWS) program. This brief aims to highlight the key challenges of the FWS program in meeting the needs of low-income and post-traditional students and provide initial recommendations to reform the program. In particular it focuses on the challenges and reforms to providing career-focused placements.

Low-income students must increasingly rely on work (and loans) to meet the high costs of college. Too often, though, the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Kenefick, Elizabeth
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Resource type: Paper
Subjects: Teaching and learning; Disadvantaged; Students;

VITAL Object

An empirical analysis of state wise enrolment of higher education in India

Higher education has received a lot of attention in India over the past few years. There are four reasons for this recent focus. First, [the] country's weak higher education system is being blamed for skill shortages in several sectors of [the] economy. Second, reservation quotas in higher education institutions, particularly the more reputed ones that provide access to high status and best-paid jobs became a highly divisive issue, central to the policy of inclusive growth and distributive justice, and hence politically very important. Third, in the backdrop of the first two developments, it began to be argued that the country would not be able to sustain its growth momentum and maintain competitiveness unless problems with higher education are fixed. Last, demand for higher education continues to outpace the supply due to [the] growing population of young people, gains in school education, the growing middle class and their rising aspirations. The current research study was formulated with the following objectives to find out the state wise students' women and men enrolment in higher education in India, to find out the stage-wise enrolment of students in higher education, and to find out the students enrolment - faculty-wise (2008-2009).

Higher education has received a lot of attention in India over the past few years. There are four reasons for this recent ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Vijayalakshmi, C.
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Asia; India
Journal title: Journal of education and practice
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Participation; Gender;

VITAL Object

'There's more unites us than divides us!': a further and higher education community of practice in nursing

In 2010, reflecting the strategic institutional imperative of widening participation and enhancing transition to health programmes, a Scottish nursing community of practice (CoP), was formed to bring together academics from further and higher education, initially for a period of six months. The community was funded by the Greater Glasgow Articulation Partnership (GGAP) and underpinned by Wenger's (1988) Community of Practice (CoP) model. The CoP focused on exploration of current practice, particularly transition, articulation and the first-year experience in tertiary education.

In 2010, reflecting the strategic institutional imperative of widening participation and enhancing transition to health ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Mayne, Wendy; Andrew, Nicola; Drury, Carol;
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: Scotland; Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Journal of further and higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Communities of practice; Higher education; Pathways

VITAL Object

The specificity of general human capital: evidence from college major choice

College graduates with a science or business related degree earn up to 25 per cent higher wages than other college graduates. However, individuals do not always pursue careers related to their major, generating within-major gaps in wages that are similar in size to the across major gaps. As an example, science majors who work in jobs related to their field of study earn approximately 30 per cent higher wages than those working in non-related jobs. In this paper, [the authors] aim to estimate the true returns to college major accounting for the specificity of skill. [The authors] develop a structural model of human capital that allows for both skill uncertainty and differential accumulation of human capital across major. [The] findings indicate that the average returns to obtaining a business or science degree, although quite large, are smaller than the raw gaps would indicate. The average return to obtaining a science degree and working in a related job remains close to 30 per cent. [The authors] also find that individuals are uncertain about their future productivity at the time of the college major decision. The combination of skill uncertainty and the specificity of the return appear to make majoring in a science related field less attractive.

College graduates with a science or business related degree earn up to 25 per cent higher wages than other college ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Kinsler, Josh; Pavan, Ronni
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Resource type: Paper
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Outcomes; Students;

VITAL Object

Australian youth work education: curriculum renewal and a model for sustainability for niche professions

This report overviews a project that was designed to assist in renewing the curriculum for Australian youth work professional education. The project was intended to anticipate future education and training requirements for the youth work professional; articulate the aspirations, common content, pedagogy, values and guiding principles of Australian university youth work professional education; and articulate its relationship with the [vocational education and training] VET youth worker-training curriculum. In addition, the project was intended to investigate potential for cross-institutional sharing of courseware and educational materials and will facilitate future benchmarking, inter-sectoral and inter-professional pathways, and international qualification recognition. The intention was to promote long-term change through the establishment of a cross-sectoral Youth Work Educators Network. A secondary purpose of the project was to understand the challenges niche professional courses face and provide a sustainability model. From this preliminary work, it was hoped that it would be possible to suggest some starting points for a sustainability model for other 'niche' professions. The initial project team included representatives of all Australian youth work professional degree programmes in public universities. An additional representative from a youth work professional degree programme at a private higher education provider subsequently joined the team.

This report overviews a project that was designed to assist in renewing the curriculum for Australian youth work ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Cooper, Trudi; Bessant, Judith; Broadbent, Robyn;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Workforce development; Teaching and learning; Providers of education and training;

VITAL Object

Early transition trends and differences of higher education attainment in the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern European countries

The past trends in tertiary education attainment of selected post-communist countries are investigated through population projections. Did a common higher education policy manifest itself through attainment levels, and how did the situation change after the collapse of the Soviet regime? The approach is based on comprehensive back-projections ranging from year 2000 to 1970. Descriptive findings for most countries show that the level of tertiary education attainment for women has surpassed that of men sooner than in Western Europe. Results are discussed in light of individual countries' pre-war higher education models and former communist policy, and possible implications are derived for future study of higher education attainment.

The past trends in tertiary education attainment of selected post-communist countries are investigated through population ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Terama, Emma; Kou, Anu; Kc, Samir
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe; Armenia; Estonia;
Journal title: Finnish yearbook of population research
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Outcomes; Higher education; Equity;

VITAL Object

Business-related studies and Indigenous Australian students

Substantial recent growth in the number of Indigenous businesses means that the need for business-related skills in the Indigenous population will be greater than ever. This report reviews the existing literature relating to Indigenous students and business-related studies in Australia, and provides a snapshot of Indigenous students' participation in, and completion of, business-related higher education courses. Data from the Higher Education Statistics Collection are analysed, in conjunction with evidence on labour market outcomes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous graduates from the 2011 Census and the Australian Graduate Survey, to identify examples of strategies to engage Indigenous students in business-related courses. This analysis is complemented by extensive consultations with 15 of the 40 institutions involved in providing management and commerce courses in Australian universities. Indigenous support centres are an important factor, as are modes of teaching for the courses in question. A number of universities suggested working with industry to create more employment opportunities and support Indigenous role models in associated occupations (e.g. as is already occurring in the accountancy profession). Given the lack of participation of Indigenous students in enabling courses in this field of study, it is likely that Indigenous students will need to augment their level of proficiency in the basic competencies required for successful completion of their studies.

Substantial recent growth in the number of Indigenous businesses means that the need for business-related skills in the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hunter, Boyd; Radoll, Peter; Schwab, R. G.;
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Resource type: Working paper
Series name: Working paper (Australian National University. Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research)
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Indigenous people; Participation;

VITAL Object

The under-attainment of ethnic minority students in UK higher education: what we know and what we don't know

In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment practices in different institutions and subjects. [It is] not really known whether ethnic differences in attainment are reflected in variations in the student experience. [It is] not known what factors are responsible for the ethnic differences in attainment that remain when differences in entry qualifications have been taken into account. Finally, [it is] not known what aspects of teaching and assessment practices are responsible for variations in the attainment gap.

In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Richardson, John T. E.
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Journal of further and higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Demographics; Outcomes;

VITAL Object

Quality after the cuts?: higher education practitioners' accounts of systemic challenges to teaching quality in times of 'austerity'

What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching staff perceive their teaching practices? What impact are funding cuts, increases in student fees and the concomitant increased workloads having on faculty morale? How might this influence 'quality cultures' in teaching in media, communications, cultural studies and related disciplines, and higher education more broadly? To investigate issues around teaching quality enhancement and teaching quality assurance in the changing higher education environment in the UK, [the authors] designed an innovative 'Teaching Exchange' (TE) workshop, which ran during 2010 and 2011 in Media and Communications departments at five diverse higher education institutions around England. Drawn from discussions with over 40 faculty members, this paper provides an account of how TE workshop participants viewed the current structural constraints on teaching quality in regard to: (1) changing teaching loads, (2) the marketisation of degree programmes and (3) the internationalisation of student bodies without adequate support structures. In reporting on these challenges to quality in teaching, this paper contributes to the generation of alternatives to the existing top-down bureaucratisation of teaching quality control.

What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Feigenbaum, Anna; Iqani, Mehita
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: England; Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Journal of further and higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Quality; Higher education; Teaching and learning;

VITAL Object