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TVET stigmatization in developing countries: reality or fallacy?

TVET (technical vocational education and training) programmes have been in existence in most developing African countries including Ghana for decades. But their intended productive and inventive output of producing readily employable and or self-employable graduates, and serving as a real economic bail out for the deteriorating economies in Africa is yet to be achieved. This worrying development has culminated in a stigmatization towards the study of the TVET programmes in higher institutions in Ghana. This paper therefore explores briefly the historicity of TVET in Ghana, including the tertiary-based TVET institutions (particularly, polytechnics and universities). Through in-depth inquiry, this paper investigates the root cause of the stigmatization and its concomitant effects on the nation, the learners and the higher institutions of training in such programmes. Using comparative analytical methodology, the study revealed that there is: curriculum deficiency in TVET programmes; logistical challenge due to inadequate funding; poor linkage of TVET to industry; an unfair trend of inappropriate categorization of graduates on the field; and a continuous chain of leadership crisis. The paper recommends more dynamic, innovative and modern curriculum review to include product and industrial design courses such as animation, game design, robotics, interior decoration, multimedia design, aircraft, automobile and ship design, structural and industrial painting and medical engineering.

TVET (technical vocational education and training) programmes have been in existence in most developing African countries ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Essel, Osuanyi Quaicoo; Agyarkoh, Eric; Mohammed, Sumaila;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Ghana; Africa
Journal title: European journal of training and development studies
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Vocational education and training; Providers of education and training; Industry;

VITAL Object

We are the products of our experiences: the role higher education plays in prison

As of 2012, an estimated 2.2 million people were incarcerated in jails and prisons in the United States. Prisoners are disproportionately likely to come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, to be members of racial/ethnic minority groups, to have held a low-skill, low-paying job (if any at all) at the time of arrest, and to be less educated than their counterparts in the general population. Data suggest that better educated prisoners are less likely to relapse into criminal behavior after release from prison. Education leads to jobs and trades which help people step away from crime. This paper reflects on life and prison experiences for some prisoners that led to shifts in perceptions of the role of higher education in prison. This article draws on the importance of higher education in prisons, but also adds a new dimension by drawing on the benefits of inside-out college courses in prison that include university students, requires the same course work, and provides college credit for both sets of students. This article seeks to demonstrate that experience and education are the most effective tools for change. If penal policy is left as it stands, there will be no change for the overwhelming majority of men and women who are eventually returning to prison communities. In this article [the authors] address how their experiences shaped their understanding of the 'fast life', their prison and educational experiences, as well as those of former and current prisoners, the glaring connections between education and recidivism, and possible solutions for penal education policies.

As of 2012, an estimated 2.2 million people were incarcerated in jails and prisons in the United States. Prisoners are ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Shoemaker, Robert; Willis, Brandon; Bryant, Angela
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Journal of prisoners on prisons
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Teaching and learning; Disadvantaged; Higher education;

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Addressing new skills needs for the automotive industry through motorsports educational pathway

The automotive industry has available, higher-skilled positions that need engineers and engineering technologists who are qualified and capable to work in a high-paced, advanced manufacturing sector. Various educational programs across the country offer programs related to the motorsports area at the associate of science level, and there are various articulation agreements that enable students to continue their education to the bachelors degree [level]. These programs try to fill the gap related to the skills shortage in systems and new design methods and processes. The main strength of such educational pathways is that students, trained to work as technicians in the automotive/motorsports area and with a completed four-year undergraduate degree, have specific skills highly sought by the automotive industry. Old Dominion University (ODU) and Patrick Henry Community College (PHCC) have partnered to offer a motorsports program to students who have passion for this highly exciting and rewarding technical profession of motorsports. The program is designed as an associate of applied sciences to a bachelor of science [BS] program, where students receive an associate in applied sciences motorsports degree from PHCC, followed by one year of leveling courses at either PHCC, another community college, or ODU, and then complete a BS degree in mechanical engineering technology at ODU with a minor in motorsports. This paper gives an example of such an educational pathway.

The automotive industry has available, higher-skilled positions that need engineers and engineering technologists who are ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Jovanovic, Vukica; Tomovic, Mileta M.; Verma, Alok;
Conference name: IAJC-ISAM International Conference
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Resource type: Conference
Subjects: Pathways; Skills and knowledge; Industry;

VITAL Object

Acquiring soft skills at university

In general universities focus on teaching professional information rather than soft skills like creativity, problem solving, personal communication, writing and speaking skills. Students learn how to become an engineer, an accountant or a dentist, but they don't learn soft skills. Without soft skills, university graduates faces trouble in their professional life. With a university education graduates can practice their profession; they can design a machine, cure an illness, or develop economic growth models, but they cannot communicate effectively, do teamwork or solve problems. Hence, thousands of dollars are spent in soft skills training in the corporate arena. This training is short and insufficient and costs time and money because of the lack of soft skills. Therefore university students should acquire soft skills before they graduate. In this study, the methods for students to acquire soft skills during their higher education will be evaluated.

In general universities focus on teaching professional information rather than soft skills like creativity, problem solving, ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Arat, Melih
Date: 2014
Journal title: Journal of educational and instructional studies in the world
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Students; Providers of education and training;

VITAL Object

The factors affecting the supply of health services and medical professionals in rural areas

This report summarises the findings of the inquiry that was undertaken as per the stated terms of reference, i.e. the factors affecting the supply and distribution of health services and medical professionals in rural areas, with particular reference to: (a) the factors limiting the supply of health services and medical, nursing and allied health professionals to small regional communities as compared with major regional and metropolitan centres; (b) the effect of the introduction of Medicare Locals on the provision of medical services in rural areas; (c) current incentive programs for recruitment and retention of doctors and dentists, particularly in smaller rural communities, including: (i) their role, structure and effectiveness, (ii) the appropriateness of the delivery model, and (iii) whether the application of the current Australian Standard Geographical Classification – Remoteness Areas classification scheme ensures appropriate distribution of funds and delivers intended outcomes; and (d) any other related matters.

This report summarises the findings of the inquiry that was undertaken as per the stated terms of reference, i.e. the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Australia. Parliament. Senate. Community Affairs References Committee
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Oceania; Australia
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Industry; Workforce development; Higher education;

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Quality assurance for public higher education: context, strategies and challenges in Kenya

Quality assurance (QA) mechanisms used to be highly dependent on national administrative traditions but nowadays there is a convergence of mechanisms. Compared to more developed higher education (HE) systems in the world, QA systems in Africa are still at an infant stage and thus confronted by many challenges. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study analysing the crucial issues and unique challenges facing Kenya's public HE as it struggles to develop QA mechanisms. Using purposive sampling, the researcher chose two public universities who indicated their willingness to participate and a national QA Agency (QAA). The study was done through in-depth interviews and a review of historical materials and records. Overall, respondents strongly emphasised the need for Kenyan universities to have compulsory and effective external and internal QA mechanisms. They indicated that the trends facing HE make it necessary for HE in Kenya to review their traditional QA structures and to create new systems of external QA. The numerous comments in this research indicate deficiency not only in the QAA focus and work but also in the internal QA frameworks within public universities.

Quality assurance (QA) mechanisms used to be highly dependent on national administrative traditions but nowadays there is a ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Odhiambo, George
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Kenya; Africa
Journal title: Higher education research and development
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Quality; Higher education; Teaching and learning;

VITAL Object

Academic workforce planning: towards 2020

Universities New Zealand - Te Pokai Tara commissioned Business and Economic Research Limited (BERL) to analyse the academic workforce, identify possible scenarios for the future and present the universities with options and recommendations to prepare for these changes. This report describes the Academic Workforce Project 2020, the objectives of which were to: identify and quantify at a strategic level the size and broad mix of the academic staff needed to resource New Zealand's universities to the year 2020; predict and quantify significant academic staffing supply shortfalls and surpluses to the year 2020; develop and recommend realistic and sustainable strategies for meeting future academic staffing requirements; and incorporate bridging strategies into a high level implementation plan that defines key accountabilities, milestones and activities. This project has quantified the supply and demand for academic staff within New Zealand's universities between 2008 and 2020, and identified strategies to address the issues that may arise during this period. It outlines three scenarios of possible academic workforce development.

Universities New Zealand - Te Pokai Tara commissioned Business and Economic Research Limited (BERL) to analyse the academic ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Nana, Ganesh; Stokes, Fiona; Lynn, Amanda
Date: 2010
Geographic subjects: New Zealand; Oceania
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Workforce development; Providers of education and training; Research;

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1974-1976: the seeds of flexibility in the pathway to tertiary participation at University of Newcastle, NSW

By the 1960s equality of opportunity was a dominant theme in social science research, and in keeping with this trend, the Whitlam Labor Government abolished university fees in 1974 to open university access, especially to talented women and men who otherwise would not contemplate a university career. In 1974 also the University of Newcastle instituted a radical new plan to open up its doors to the wider community of 'non traditional students'. This paper explores the history of the enabling program that resulted, the Open Foundation, focusing on the pilot program in 1974 and its first two years of full operation. Thought at the time that it would 'drain its market' within five years, the Open Foundation has flourished and grown for almost 40 years. The analysis canvasses three key themes: curriculum and pedagogy, support and retention, and access and success in order to understand the seeds of this longevity.

By the 1960s equality of opportunity was a dominant theme in social science research, and in keeping with this trend, the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: May, Josephine; Bunn, Rosalie J.
Conference name: National Association of Enabling Educators of Australia Conference
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania; New South Wales
Resource type: Conference
Subjects: Participation; Higher education; Equity;

VITAL Object

Do higher education institutions make a difference in competence development?: a model of competence production at university

This paper proposes a model of competence development required of graduates at work which suggests that universities make a difference when they add value to their students. They add value by ensuring that their modes of teaching and learning, and assessment positively enhance the competencies of their students which are important in the labor market. [The] results have clear implications for policy in the Bologna process. One of the main challenges facing higher education institutions in Europe is to transform their current pedagogical practices - the lecture continues to be the dominant teaching method - into competence-based teaching as a response of universities to labor market needs. In this paper, econometric evidence shows that innovative methodologies used by Spanish universities play a key role in competence development. This is consistent with the view that education raises productivity; a finding that refutes some theories which suggest that education may be no more than a screening device which allows employers to identify the more able potential employees from the rest. Besides the importance of formal academic institutions, firms appear to be sources of learning and skill formation as well.

This paper proposes a model of competence development required of graduates at work which suggests that universities make a ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Velasco, Manuel Salas
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Spain; Europe
Journal title: Higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Employment; Research;

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Commonwealth controls over Australian schools, TAFEs and universities via tied funding: time for Constitutional reform?

A matter of some controversy in schools, TAFEs and universities has been the advent of significant controls over these state and territory law bodies by the Commonwealth Government, based on the supply of grants linked to conditions. Under the previous Howard Government the conditions required significant workplace reforms (including Australian Workplace Agreements) at the university and TAFE level. Commonwealth grants for state and private schools contain conditions relating to curriculum, school reports, statements of learning, and various school performance targets. Such controls were never envisaged for the Commonwealth in the Constitution. This paper examines in some detail the conditions imposed on schools, TAFE and universities, describes the constitutional position relating to regulation of education by the Commonwealth, including the potential use of the corporations power, and makes suggestions for reform.

A matter of some controversy in schools, TAFEs and universities has been the advent of significant controls over these state ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Jackson, Jim
Date: 2008
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Australia and New Zealand journal of law and education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Governance; Providers of education and training;

VITAL Object