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Expanding higher education: institutional responses in Australia from the post-war era to the 1970s

The history of universities in the 20th century is, at least from the perspective of growth, a massive success. Australian higher education is no exception. Prior to the Second World War, Australia had six universities and approximately 10,500 students. Now there are in excess of one million students attending 39 institutions. In each phase of student expansion, governments have sought to make universities accessible to new segments of the community, a pattern that informs contemporary social inclusion initiatives. This paper focuses on two successive periods - the 1940s/1950s and the 1960s/1970s - during which university participation expanded. Comparing two universities which were at that time very different from one another - the University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales - [the author] consider[s] the ways both universities approached admissions to understand what each institution hoped to achieve in attracting students beyond the traditional elite. This helps move beyond government strategy and rhetoric to consider what universities believed was at stake as they enabled new students to enter their communities.

The history of universities in the 20th century is, at least from the perspective of growth, a massive success. Australian ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Forsyth, Hannah
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Paedagogica historica: international journal of the history of education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Providers of education and training; Participation;

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Experiences of alienation at university: some themes amongst Mount Druitt youth

This report examines the experiences of alienation recounted by five participants from Mount Druitt – a severely disadvantaged region in Western Sydney, Australia – who are beginning their higher education at five different university campuses located in the central or northern regions of Sydney (termed 'Metropolitan Sydney' for brevity). It begins by recounting the responses given by these five participants to the question: 'Can you tell me a bit about what university life has been like for you?' On this basis, a thematic analysis of their experiences is conducted, exploring themes and sub-themes that suggest alienation specific to their milieu and that may be passed over by broader survey categories such as 'low socioeconomic status (SES)' or 'disadvantaged.'

This report examines the experiences of alienation recounted by five participants from Mount Druitt – a severely ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Low, Remy Yi Siang
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: New South Wales; Australia; Oceania
Resource type: Report
Series name: Mount Druitt University Hub report
Subjects: Youth; Teaching and learning; Higher education;

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Universities of technology

One of the processes set off by the restructuring of higher education initiated in 1995 was the repositioning of South African higher education institutions within the higher education system. This process included the requirements for a redefinition of institutional missions which were either driven from outside, as in the case of the creation of comprehensive institutions, or which were driven internally by institutions' own analyses of the environment within which they operated. A particularly good example of mission redefinition in the context of restructuring is the response of the former technikons to the change of their designation to that of universities of technology in 2004. Although the change of designation of the South African technikons marked the point of arrival after a decade of discussion among and between the institutions and the Department of Education obscures a number of issues worth reflecting on. This issue of Kagisano brings together papers that attempt to illuminate some aspects of the debate about universities of technology.

One of the processes set off by the restructuring of higher education initiated in 1995 was the repositioning of South ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Council on Higher Education (South Africa)
Date: 2006
Geographic subjects: South Africa; Africa
Resource type: Book
Series name: Kagisano
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Higher education; Governance;

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Universities of technology: deepening the debate

One of the more significant elements of the restructuring of South African higher education, during the past decade, was the change in the designation of those institutions known as technikons to universities of technology (UoTs). This change in name brought with it contested expectations of a change in the nature of these institutions. This issue of Kagisano provides insider views of the universities of technology with papers contributed by senior staff working in the institutions. The eight papers cover key concerns - implementing appropriate teaching programmes, developing research in the institutions, the nature of technology transfer, the regulatory environment in which they operate and the monitoring of institutions' performance.

One of the more significant elements of the restructuring of South African higher education, during the past decade, was the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Council on Higher Education (South Africa)
Date: 2010
Geographic subjects: South Africa; Africa
Resource type: Book
Series name: Kagisano
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Governance; Higher education;

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Early and delayed offers to under-represented university students

This paper examines the relative merits of early and delayed offer schemes in attracting under-represented students to university. Following the introduction of a demand-driven system and the establishment of national growth and equity targets, Australian universities have increased the number of offers made to students before the release of Australian Tertiary Admission Ranks. The majority of public universities now operate an early offer scheme, often explicitly to increase their proportions of traditionally under-represented students. By contrast, the University of Melbourne and the University of Western Australia have developed delayed offer schemes, whereby entry to professional courses depends primarily on achievement within a generalist undergraduate degree. Under both models, institutions seek to reduce their reliance on Australian Tertiary Admission Rank, which has been shown to be correlated with socio-economic status. The paper considers both models with respect to their transparency, efficiency, predictive validity and equity.

This paper examines the relative merits of early and delayed offer schemes in attracting under-represented students to ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Harvey, Andrew
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Australian journal of education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Equity; Participation;

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Ability in mathematics and science at age 15 and program choice in university: differences by gender

Past research has revealed that young women are more likely to enter postsecondary programs that have lower returns in the labour market, such as the arts, humanities and social sciences. Young men, conversely, tend to enrol in and graduate from programs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), which generally have greater labour market returns. Factors such as academic interests, achievement test scores, and high-school marks can affect later university program choice. Using the linked Youth in Transition Survey (YITS)-Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data, the current paper examines the relationship between mathematics and science test scores at age 15 and first program choice in university, with a focus on differences in ability in mathematics and science by gender. Generally speaking, the results reveal that the intersection of gender and ability does matter; even young women of high mathematical ability are less likely to enter STEM fields than young men of similar or even lesser mathematical ability. This implies that something other than pure ability is affecting young women's likelihood of entering STEM programs in university.

Past research has revealed that young women are more likely to enter postsecondary programs that have lower returns in the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hango, Darcy
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Canada; North America
Resource type: Paper
Series name: Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics research paper
Subjects: Gender; Students; Participation;

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Proceedings: EADTU 25th anniversary conference 2012: the role of open and flexible education in European higher education systems for 2020: new models, new markets, new media

Educational models are changing increasingly. More universities are embracing open and flexible learning and as a consequence, the creation of international student markets is becoming a reality. The Conference presents the most recent results of task forces and projects with regard to quality assurance in e-learning; networked curricula involving strategic partnerships between universities; online or virtual mobility; and knowledge sharing with business.

Educational models are changing increasingly. More universities are embracing open and flexible learning and as a ...  Show Full Abstract  

Conference name: European Association of Distance Teaching Universities' Annual Conference
Corporate authors: European Association of Distance Teaching Universities
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Europe
Resource type: Conference
Subjects: Higher education; Teaching and learning; Technology;

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Higher Educators Advancing the Disability Standards - Universities online Project

The Disability Standards for Education (DSE) were published in 2005 to clarify the obligations of Australian education providers under the Disability Discrimination Act (1992) which seeks to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities. The key object of the DSE is to establish processes and structures aimed at enabling students with disability to engage in education on the same basis as all other students. This means that a student or prospective student with disability is given opportunities and choices which are comparable to those for students without disabilities. HEADS-UP (Higher Educators Advancing Disability Standards – Universities online Project) is a consortium of agencies which has developed an e-learning resource for Australian universities to ensure they are aware of and meet their obligations under the DSE. The resource consists of a suite of eight interactive lessons which were evaluated for effectiveness at the University of Canberra and the Australian National University. The final product is freely available to all Australian universities.

The Disability Standards for Education (DSE) were published in 2005 to clarify the obligations of Australian education ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Kilham, Chris; Zilber, David; Christian, Mark
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Higher education; Teaching and learning; Disability;

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Patterns of learning in a sample of adult returners to higher education

This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on the other. The data suggest that this group of students adopt a reproductive approach to learning, which is coupled with rudimentary study skills and a dualist, right/wrong epistemology. This constellation leads to a certain scepticism regarding the usefulness of peer interaction, even though such student-centred types of teaching are held to promote 'deep' learning.

This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Scotland; Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Journal of further and higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Teaching and learning; Lifelong learning; Students;

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Identifying students 'at risk' of withdrawal using ROC analysis of attendance data

Student retention has become increasingly important as student numbers continue to rise. Early identification of those students who are disengaging from their course is crucial if steps are to be taken to turn this around. Attendance data from the compulsory aspects of courses were gathered on a centrally held database during teaching week six of semester one. Students who did not meet a pre-set threshold of expected attendance, derived from [receiver operating characteristic] ROC analysis of historical attendance data, were identified as 'at risk' of withdrawal to their adviser of studies during teaching week seven. These students were contacted and encouraged to make an appointment with their adviser so that they could receive help with any difficulties they were having. The entire cohort was then reviewed in the following academic year to see if they had withdrawn, continued (in any year) or progressed to the second year of their programme.

Student retention has become increasingly important as student numbers continue to rise. Early identification of those ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: McCluckie, Barry
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Scotland; Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Journal of further and higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Participation; Providers of education and training; Teaching and learning;

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