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Low-wage employment versus unemployment: which one provides better prospects for women?

This study analyzes state dependence in low-wage employment of western German women using [German Socio-Economic Panel Study] GSOEP data, 2000-2006. [The authors] estimate dynamic multinomial logit models with random effects and find that having a low-wage job increases the probability of being low-paid and decreases the chances of being high-paid in the future, in particular for low-paid women working part-time. However, concerning future wage prospects low-paid women are clearly better off than unemployed or inactive women. [The authors] argue that for women low-wage jobs can serve as stepping stones out of unemployment and are to be preferred to staying unemployed and waiting for a better job.

This study analyzes state dependence in low-wage employment of western German women using [German Socio-Economic Panel ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Mosthaf, Alexander; Schank, Thorsten; Schnabel, Claus
Date: 2009
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Gender; Employment; Income;

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Agenda 2020: strategies to achieve full employment in Germany

This strategy paper by the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) shows ways in which Germany once more can attain full employment in the coming decade. Much of what the previous government's 'Agenda 2010' has put into motion has clearly steered labor market development in the right direction. The reforms are one of the main reasons why Germany has been more resistant to the recent financial and economic crisis than other countries. While these achievements should not be called into question, further action is necessary. The IZA concept includes the following elements: (1) Education reform: early childhood education must be improved. Social background should no longer determine future career prospects. More independence and competition between schools and universities would improve the quality of education. Selection of students into different secondary school tracks should occur at a higher age. The dual system of apprenticeship training could be shortened. College tuition fees could be replaced by a graduate tax. (2) Welfare state reform: a consistent implementation of the principle of reciprocity would create additional employment incentives and make working for a living worthwhile again even for the low-skilled. Workfare is socially just and promotes independence rather than producing dependency. Child benefits should be granted primarily as vouchers. (3) Job placement reform: the problem groups of the labor market need one-stop support tailored to their individual needs as soon as they become unemployed. IZA proposes the creation of job centers that act independently from local and federal authorities in order to avoid the organizational maze of unclear responsibilities. (4) Immigration policy reform: Germany needs high-skilled immigrants to cope with demographic change and skilled labor shortages. A selection system for permanent immigrants and a market-based solution for temporary immigrants would substantially increase the economic benefits of immigration and create additional momentum for the realization of full employment.

This strategy paper by the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) shows ways in which Germany once more can attain full ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Schneider, Hilmar; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
Date: 2010
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Resource type: Paper
Series name: IZA policy paper
Subjects: Policy; Governance; Labour market;

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Massive open online course (MOOC) report 2013

The University of London International Programmes launched four massive open online courses (MOOCs) on the Coursera platform in June 2013. Each of the MOOCs lasted six weeks and was designed to offer a short introduction to subjects the university offered as full degrees. The initial offering of four MOOCs attracted over 210,000 initial registrations, over 90,000 active students in their first week, from over 160 countries and lead to 8,843 Statements of Accomplishment being attained. The programmes offered achieved an aggregate student satisfaction rating of 91 per cent (ranging from good to excellent). While it is still too early to evaluate the conversion of students completing a MOOC to enrolment on a University of London International Programmes degree, over 30 students who applied to the university's 2013/14 fee-paying programmes have indicated that they took one of the MOOCs beforehand.

The University of London International Programmes launched four massive open online courses (MOOCs) on the Coursera platform ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Grainger, Barney
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: England; Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Higher education; International education; Teaching and learning;

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Sense and instability: three decades of skills and employment policy

Over the past three decades, England has witnessed dramatic changes in the skills and employment landscape. This review is concerned with tracking and evaluating key changes to skills policy over the past three decades in order to identify areas of good practice and ways in which lessons can be learnt in skills development. This review aims to: learn from past reviews and policy implementation by exploring what has been successful and what has stood the test of time; define the problems that have been most intractable over the long term and assess how they might be dealt with; define the structures and mechanisms that are most effective in the delivery of policy aims; assess which aspects of the system have been short-lived and caused instability; and determine what can be done to create stability and to allow policy to be implemented more effectively, on the basis of evidence and experience. This report analyses three defined areas relating to skills and employment policy: young people; employed adults; and unemployed adults. As a major feature of skills policy, the report also includes an overview of changes to the vocational qualifications and governance structures.

Over the past three decades, England has witnessed dramatic changes in the skills and employment landscape. This review is ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: City and Guilds of London Institute
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: England; Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Policy; Skills and knowledge; Employment;

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Framework of actions on youth employment

Youth unemployment is one of Europe’s most pressing problems. In the current economic and financial crisis the lack of job opportunities has affected young people more than any other group in society; this is reflected in high and increasing youth unemployment rates and levels of precariousness. In Europe, more than 5.68 million young people are unemployed. The average rate of youth unemployment (23.4 per cent) is more than double the overall unemployment rate (10.7 per cent). This framework of actions is the first priority of the European Social Dialogue Work Programme for 2012-2014. With it, the European social partners aim to promote solutions to reduce youth unemployment. They call on national social partners, public authorities and other stakeholders to act together and achieve concrete progress in favour of youth employment. This framework of actions is based on existing and new practices linked to the four priorities identified: learning, transition, employment and entrepreneurship. The European social partners aim to promote the most effective initiatives identified across Europe that could be used as inspiration for designing solutions by national social partners in their respective contexts. Recommendations to other relevant actors such as the [European Union] EU institutions and Member States are also included.

Youth unemployment is one of Europe’s most pressing problems. In the current economic and financial crisis the lack of job ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: BusinessEurope (Organisation)
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (UEAPME)

Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Europe
Resource type: Paper
Subjects: Employment; Youth; Labour market;

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Policy brief on entrepreneurship for people with disabilities

This policy brief was produced by the OECD and the European Commission on entrepreneurship by people with disabilities. It presents data on the scale of self-employment and entrepreneurship activities undertaken by people with disabilities and discusses the barriers to entrepreneurship that are unique to people with disabilities. The policy brief also discusses policy approaches to support entrepreneurship for people with disabilities, including increasing awareness about the feasibility of entrepreneurship; developing entrepreneurship skills; supporting the development, acquisition and use of assistive technologies; ensuring access to appropriate financial support; and, improving Internet and [information technology] IT accessibility. The brief provides examples of successful policy approaches used in the [European Union] EU as well as inspiring stories about entrepreneurs with disabilities.

This policy brief was produced by the OECD and the European Commission on entrepreneurship by people with disabilities. It ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Halabisky, David
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe
Resource type: Paper
Subjects: Employment; Disability; Participation;

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EU, be proud of your trainers: supporting those who train for improving skills, employment and competitiveness: guiding principles on professional development of trainers in VET

Guiding principles point to the key role of trainers (tutors, instructors, mentors) in companies who ensure high quality work-based learning and the link between education and real working life. The stronger the link, the easier is job-seeking and skill matching to the needs of companies. Competent trainers also contribute to ensuring that students will stay in education, that young and older, employed and unemployed, will come back to learning. Trainers in companies should be supported in order to acquire new competences and develop the existing ones. At least four groups of competences are identified as necessary: technical/subject-related; company-specific; pedagogical-didactical and transversal.

Guiding principles point to the key role of trainers (tutors, instructors, mentors) in companies who ensure high quality ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop)
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe
Resource type: Guide
Subjects: Vocational education and training; Providers of education and training; Workforce development;

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When supply meets demand: wage inequality in Portugal

Wage inequality in Portugal increased over the last quarter of century. The period from 1982 to 1995 witnessed strong increases in both upper- and lower-tail inequality. A shortage of skills combined with skill-biased technological changes are at the core of this evolution. Since 1995, lower-tail inequality decreased, while upper-tail inequality increased at a slower rate. The supply of high-skilled workers more than doubled during this period, contributing significantly to the slowdown. Polarization of employment demand is the more credible explanation for the more recent evolution. As in other developed economies, for instance Germany and the United States, [the authors] show that institutions played a minor role in shaping changes in inequality.

Wage inequality in Portugal increased over the last quarter of century. The period from 1982 to 1995 witnessed strong ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Centeno, Mario; Novo, Alvaro A.
Date: 2009
Geographic subjects: Portugal; Europe
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Income; Equity; Labour market;

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Forecasting future skill needs in Northern Ireland

This study attempts to look at an empirical assessment of future skills needs for the Northern Ireland (NI) economy. At the time of concluding this research (February 2009) the NI economy is in a precarious position with unemployment climbing and sentiment amongst consumers and business at record lows. In this environment the outlook for employment in 2009 and 2010 is more challenging and the employment prospects for educational leavers from schools, [further education] FE colleges and universities, as well as the existing stock of unemployed and inactive who would like to work, looks very challenging. While it is important that the study is cognisant of the prevailing economic winds, it is also important that it looks longer-term at both the likely economic outcome for the Northern Ireland economy (when the economy is forecast to pick-up and continue growing) and also the desired or 'aspirational' outcome which policy strives to achieve. The analysis in this report looks at the skills needs of a baseline and a more aspirational outlook for the Northern Ireland economy.

This study attempts to look at an empirical assessment of future skills needs for the Northern Ireland (NI) economy. At the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Oxford Economics (Firm)
FGS Consulting (Firm)
Date: 2009
Geographic subjects: Northern Ireland; Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Outcomes; Labour market;

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The reform of apprenticeship in Italy: winners and losers

The new reform of apprenticeship introduced in 2003 profoundly changed the structure of this contract in Italy. One of the main features of this reform was the extension of the upper age limit for apprenticeship, which became a real possibility also for more educated people, who in turn may end up trapped in jobs offered to less qualified people before the reform. In this paper [the authors] exploit the regional, sector and time variation of the implementation of the law to estimate the probability of being an apprentice, of being overeducated and of undergoing training during apprenticeship. Using seven waves of the national Labour Force Survey, [the authors] find that the reform increased the incidence of apprenticeships for Italian youth aged between 25 to 29, in particular when higher educated. [The authors] then show that higher educated youth were penalized by the increased intensity of apprenticeship contract in terms of over‐education, while this was not an issue for workers with a secondary level of education. Finally, [the authors] find that the 2003 apprenticeship reform increased the incidence of training under apprenticeships only for workers with a secondary degree or with a university degree but older.

The new reform of apprenticeship introduced in 2003 profoundly changed the structure of this contract in Italy. One of the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Comi, Simona; Grasseni, Mara
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Italy; Europe
Resource type: Paper
Subjects: Apprenticeship; Governance; Employment;

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