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The effect of rehabilitative punishments on juvenile crime and labor market outcomes

This paper estimates the effect of a rehabilitative punishment on the post-release outcomes of juvenile criminals using a unique Finnish data set on sentences and punishments merged with the longitudinal population census for 1990-2007. The rehabilitative program was aimed at improving the social skills and labor market attachment of young offenders aged 15 to 17. A variety of research designs are used to isolate the effect of the juvenile punishment and to control for observable characteristics of the young offenders. The juvenile punishment experiment was initially conducted in certain criminal courts only and was applicable for youths aged under 18, giving rise to a differences-in-differences and triple differences setup. The juvenile punishment reduced reoffending during the year immediately after sentencing, but had no long-term effect on reoffending nor on labor market outcomes.

This paper estimates the effect of a rehabilitative punishment on the post-release outcomes of juvenile criminals using a ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Huttunen, Kristiina; Kerr, Sari Pekkala; Malkonen, Ville
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Finland; Europe
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Youth; Disadvantaged; Teaching and learning;

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Changes in labour market transitions in Ireland over the great recession

This paper assesses the impact that the 2009 Great Recession had on individuals' transitions to and from unemployment in Ireland. The rate of transition from unemployment to employment declined between 2006 and 2011, while the rate from employment to unemployment increased. The impact of some of the factors identified as contributing to the likelihood of a transition taking place were found to have changed over this period. In particular, young people are much less likely to exit unemployment, but at the same time they have a lower risk of becoming unemployed. Education has become an increasingly important factor in both supporting unemployment exits and reducing the risk of becoming unemployed since the recession. The scarring impact of long-term unemployment appears to have fallen substantially in Ireland post-recession. The results from a decomposition analysis show that compositional changes are largely unimportant in explaining the change in the transition rates between 2006 and 2011.

This paper assesses the impact that the 2009 Great Recession had on individuals' transitions to and from unemployment in ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bergin, Adele; Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Ireland; Europe
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Labour market; Economics; Statistics;

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Equity in an educational boom: lessons from the expansion and marketisation of tertiary schooling in Poland

This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of admission to subsidised, free programmes versus programmes with tuition fees. Between 1994 and 2008, Poland improved the participation of students with a low socio-economic status in university education. However, if [one] looks at the change in the ratios of enrolment probabilities for different layers of the social strata, [one] finds that the improvement refers to those with a low family educational background who live in small cities, but not to those from low income families. Further investigation shows that the policy makers should focus not only on ensuring equal access to tertiary education for all social strata, but on allowing the unprivileged groups access to education of acceptable quality.

This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Poland; Europe
Journal title: European journal of education: research, development and policy
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Equity; Participation;

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School leader appraisal: a tool to strengthen school leaders' pedagogical leadership and skills for teacher management?

With increasing school autonomy, often coupled with greater accountability requirements, school leaders are increasingly responsible for new human resource management tasks. Policies to improve the teaching workforce, therefore, cannot do without policies to improve the school leadership profession. Teachers' effectiveness depends, among others, on effective school leaders who shape teachers' working environment and influence their motivations. Furthermore, as recent research indicates, school leaders are the second most important school-level factor affecting, even if mainly indirectly through their influence on teachers, student learning after classroom instruction. Considering the role school leaders play for the effective school-level management of teachers and for teaching and learning through their pedagogical leadership, it is essential that school leaders are adequately prepared and supported for their role.

With increasing school autonomy, often coupled with greater accountability requirements, school leaders are increasingly ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Radinger, Thomas
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe
Journal title: European journal of education: research, development and policy
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Workforce development; Providers of education and training; Performance;

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Next generations, catwalks, random walks and arms races: conceptualising the development of quality assurance schemes

The emergence and development of quality assurance schemes in European countries over the last 15-20 years has inspired many national case studies of the systems and procedures adopted. The methods, contexts, and procedures associated with this policy change are diverse. But although individual countries have set about changing policy in different ways there appear to be some common developmental patterns within the Europe of the Bologna Process. How can these developments be conceptualised? In a first step this paper advances a typology based on the quality assurance literature. In a second step, the paper applies the typology to quality assurance developments in three countries. The third part of the paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the modelling approach in the light of the empirical evidence and a political science analysis of policy change. The paper concludes with a discussion on future directions for the comparative study of policy change within the European Higher Education Area on the basis of this conceptualisation of developments in quality assurance policy.

The emergence and development of quality assurance schemes in European countries over the last 15-20 years has inspired many ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Westerheijden, Don F.; Stensaker, Bjorn; Rosa, Maria J.;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe; Netherlands; Norway;
Journal title: European journal of education: research, development and policy
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Quality; Policy;

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Enhancing the employability skills of undergraduate engineering students

Much has been written about how universities can enhance the employability skills of their graduates. A major challenge facing engineering faculties is how to produce engineering graduates who have not just the traditional technical abilities and skills but who also have the necessary business acumen and managerial know-how to contribute positively to local business development. Today's employers are increasingly focusing on hiring graduate engineers who possess a broader skill-set than in the past. This paper describes an innovative approach taken by course designers within the School of Engineering at the University of Ulster to narrow the skills gap in interpersonal and business management skills as identified by graduate employers. The approach aims to produce engineering graduates that have the necessary business management skills to be readily employable. Opportunities for developing key soft skills have been embedded across the whole curriculum and across all years of the mechanical and engineering management programs. Practical examples of industrial collaboration are provided and the benefit to the student, industry and to the university is described. Surveys designed to assess the students' attitudes towards these softer skills were completed by undergraduate students and results are presented. The National Student Survey 2009 shows that 95 per cent of mechanical and production engineering graduates from the University of Ulster are employed in graduate positions, evidence that engineering graduates from the University of Ulster have indeed developed appropriate employability skills.

Much has been written about how universities can enhance the employability skills of their graduates. A major challenge ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Morgan, Margaret; O'Gorman, Pearse
Date: 2011
Geographic subjects: Northern Ireland; Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Book chapter
Subjects: Employment; Skills and knowledge; Students;

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Fair admissions to higher education: research to describe the use of contextual data in admissions at a sample of universities and colleges in the UK

This research study, commissioned by Supporting Professionalism in Admissions (SPA), examined current practices in the use of contextual data across the higher education (HE) sector in the UK through desk based research, interviews and visits to a number of institutions. There is increasing interest in the use of contextual data in HE admissions. This can be defined as the setting of educational attainment in the context of the circumstances in which it has been achieved, in order to inform admissions decisions. This report sets out to provide clarity around the current application of contextual data in admissions across the sector and its impact in respect of fair admissions and professionalism in admissions practice. It provides: (1) a sector-wide overview of the use, purpose, methodologies and impact of contextual data; (2) examples of the effective application of contextual data, highlighting innovative practice and where it has had an impact on fair admissions and social mobility; and (3) conclusions in respect of which types of data, methodologies and practices could be transferable to other institutions.

This research study, commissioned by Supporting Professionalism in Admissions (SPA), examined current practices in the use ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bridger, Kath; Shaw, Jenny; Moore, Joanne
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Higher education; Equity; Outcomes;

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Teacher competence frameworks in Europe: policy-as-discourse and policy-as-practice

This article analyses the growing focus on teacher competences in European policy discourse against the backdrop of global convergences in education reforms. It traces key ideas, policy recommendations, peer learning and documents which underscore the relevance of teacher quality for education improvement, as recently stressed in the European Commission communication and staff working documents [on] 'Rethinking education'. The intertwining of teacher competence frameworks with other areas of education policy is outlined - key competences in school education, the quality of initial teacher education, and the continuous professional development of teachers - teasing out reasons for their central role. Some insights from research and peer learning then explore key implications in the defining and implementing of teacher competence frameworks in national education systems. A comparative viewpoint further analyses current policy trends about teacher competences across European national contexts, in discourse and practice. In order to do so, a framework of analysis takes into account system features as key variables affecting national policy - roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, governance and education cultures, and the status of the teaching profession. Across the variety of policy practices, the analysis endeavours to trace some emerging patterns and trends, highlighting paradigmatic national examples, with some food for thought.

This article analyses the growing focus on teacher competences in European policy discourse against the backdrop of global ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Caena, Francesca
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe
Journal title: European journal of education: research, development and policy
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Policy; Providers of education and training; Skills and knowledge;

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Review and analysis of the EU teacher-related policies and activities

This article aims at raising awareness of the key role the [European Union] EU already plays in matters of teacher policy. It takes stock of European teacher policy related documents and activities, such as relevant strategies, presidency priorities, Council Conclusions, [European] Commission working documents, the activities of thematic working groups, of networks, of data gathering and research, and the available supports of the Lifelong Learning Programme and of the European Social Fund. Based on this, the article provides a clear picture of the labour market need-driven, pragmatic context of teacher policies and also the main shared European teacher policy concepts, such as teacher competence profiles, the continuum of professional development and the support of teacher educators. These fundamental concepts were shared, developed and fine tuned in the process of Member States peer learning, a crucial and highly effective method of cooperation, which is also presented in the article. The article concludes by identifying both sides of the two-way interaction process of Europeanisation taking place between Member States and the EU in teacher policy development.

This article aims at raising awareness of the key role the [European Union] EU already plays in matters of teacher policy. ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Steger, Csilla
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe
Journal title: European journal of education: research, development and policy
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Policy; Labour market; Providers of education and training

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Employee post-training behaviour and performance: evaluating the results of the training process

Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model combining the principal factors that the existing literature has shown to be related to training transfer and also by examining the relationship between training transfer and operational performance. The transfer factors chosen are training design, trainee self-efficacy and work environment. The validity of this model is tested by applying the structural equation modelling approach to data from 126 employees who have participated in various training programmes in a number of Greek organizations. The results indicate that the design of a training programme has the strongest impact on post-training job performance, along with trainees' self-efficacy and post-training behaviour.

Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Greece; Europe
Journal title: International journal of training and development
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Employment; Evaluation; Finance;

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