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Advancing ambitions: the role of career guidance in supporting social mobility

Career guidance describes activities which support individuals to learn about education and employment and plan for their future lives, learning and work. The authors of this report argue that these activities contribute to social mobility, helping people to discover and access opportunities that might exist outside of their immediate networks. They also encourage individuals to challenge their pre-existing assumptions about what they are capable of and to develop practical strategies to operationalise their aspirations. This study explores the relationship between career guidance and social mobility. It seeks to answer the following questions: What can career guidance contribute to social mobility? How have the policies of the UK coalition government impacted upon the provision of career guidance in state schools and colleges in England? What does quality career guidance look like? What evidence is there of the impact of quality career guidance? These questions were explored through a four-stage methodology comprising: (1) policy analysis and literature review, (2) gathering the core sample, (3) data analysis, and (4) case studies and interviews. This report follows the same format.

Career guidance describes activities which support individuals to learn about education and employment and plan for their ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hooley, Tristram; Matheson, Jesse; Watts, Anthony G.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: England; Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Equity; Career development; Providers of education and training;

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Returning to learning: what are the academic development needs of mature and part-time students?: what works to support and retain these students?

This paper considers the support and retention of mature and part-time (MaP) students. It analyses the specific academic development needs of MaP students based on Wenger's model of learning (1998) which puts the academic learning needs of students into three broad categories; the first is academic confidence and learner identity, the second is the need for MaP students to integrate and build a sense of community, and the third is for these students to overcome anxiety through practice and practical considerations. Then an appreciative inquiry (Cooperrider et al., 2008) approach is used to develop the University of Kent's Student Learning Advisory Service (SLAS) MaP programme called VALUE MaP. The programme offers; self-assessment of needs, one to one advice and targeted study skills sessions. The conclusion points to the positive responses received from MaP students about the programme but also acknowledges that more could be done; perhaps through reflection on students' prior knowledge, a stronger emphasis on building social learning networks, and the increased use of technology.

This paper considers the support and retention of mature and part-time (MaP) students. It analyses the specific academic ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Frith, Louise; Wilson, Allia
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: England; Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Journal of learning development in higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Higher education; Participation;

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Making performance accountability work: English lessons for US community colleges

In the United States, efforts to use performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems have yielded mixed results. A more encouraging story has unfolded in England. There, a nationwide accountability system for further education colleges - England's community-college counterparts - has led to impressive increases in student outcomes since it was implemented in 1992. Students from disadvantaged backgrounds have made particularly large gains. [This report] takes a detailed look at the policy innovations in England. For US policymakers, they provide both reason for caution and guidance for designing and implementing better performance measurement and funding systems.

In the United States, efforts to use performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Jaquette, Ozan
Date: 2006
Geographic subjects: Europe; Great Britain; England;
Resource type: Report
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Performance; Outcomes;

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Job loss and regional mobility

It is well documented that displaced workers suffer severe earnings losses, but not why this is so. One reason may be that workers are unable or unwilling to move to regions with better employment opportunities. [The authors] study this and find that job displacement increases regional mobility but, surprisingly, [the authors] also find that displaced workers who move suffer larger income losses than displaced workers who stay in the same region. This is not a selection effect, but reflects the fact that non-economic factors such as family ties are very important for the decision to migrate. Workers are less likely to move if they have family in the region where they already live, and job loss stimulates workers to relocate with parents and siblings when they live in different regions. Looking at earnings [the authors] find that the entire post displacement income difference between displaced movers and stayers is driven by workers moving to regions where their parents live or to rural areas. Furthermore, when looking at long-run family income, [the authors] find that the difference between displaced movers and stayers is very modest. With respect to selection, [the authors] find that migrants are positively selected on average, but very heterogeneous. They seem to be drawn disproportionately both from the high and the low end of the skill distribution in the region they leave.

It is well documented that displaced workers suffer severe earnings losses, but not why this is so. One reason may be that ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Huttunen, Kristiina; Moen, Jarle; Salvanes, Kjell G.
Date: 2015
Geographic subjects: Norway; Europe
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Employment; Income; Labour market;

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Adults learning, vol. 26, no. 1, Autumn 2014

This issue focuses on 'Learning through life', the main report from the independent Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning, sponsored by NIACE in 2009, which examined the future for lifelong learning in the UK. The various contributions ask what has changed since the report's publication and assess its legacy and relevance five years on. The articles are: Learning through life: how far have we come? / David Watson and Tom Schuller (pages 6-9); Learning through life: where now for lifelong learning?: Recommendation one: base lifelong learning policy on a new four-stage model of the educational life course / Karen Evans (pages 10-12); Recommendation two: rebalance resources fairly and sensibly across the different life stages / Stephen McNair (pages 12-14); Recommendation three: build a set of learning entitlements / Tom Wilson (page 15); Recommendation four: engineering flexibility: a system of credit and encouraging part-timers / Claire Callender (pages 16-18); Recommendation five: improve the quality of work / Ewart Keep (pages 19-20); Recommendation six: construct a curriculum framework for citizens' capabilities / Ruth Spellman (page 21); Recommendation seven: broaden and strengthen the capacity of the lifelong learning workforce / Jim Crawley (pages 22-23); Recommendation eight: revive local responsibility... / Keith Wakefield (pages 23-24); Recommendation nine: ... within national frameworks / John Field (pages 24-25); Recommendation 10: make the system intelligent / Mark Ravenhall (pages 26-27); Lifelong waiting / Alan Tuckett (pages 28-29); A manifesto for lasting change / Tom Stannard (pages 30-31).

This issue focuses on 'Learning through life', the main report from the independent Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (England and Wales) (NIACE)
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Journal issue
Subjects: Adult and community education; Lifelong learning; Policy;

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Lifelong learning, higher education and the development of learning communities

This set of recent papers reflects the work of the author and compiles concepts and ideas, policies and tensions associated with adult education and lifelong learning, and the role of higher education in contemporary societies. The publication is aimed at two audiences in particular, the first being Hungary and the other being the rest of Europe. The papers are as follows: Global-local, economic-civic: trends in HE and LLL from a Hungarian perspective [preface by Chris Duke]; The perspectives of adult education for countries in Central-Eastern Europe: historical and political dimensions and patterns; Lifelong learning, social movements and policy, fighting back poverty and social exclusion; In the building of an active citizen: the crossing of aims of liberal politics and of urban adult education movements at the turn of the 19th and 20th century Hungary: a tribute to Franz Poggeler; Learning cities, regions and learning communities: some characteristics of the development of the Pecs Learning City-Region Forum and the messages of the Pure Project; New forms of mobility in higher education: developments in the European Masters of Adult Education (EMAE) and the innovation potential of Eurolocal and R3L+ projects; Making higher education to open up to adult learners: an actual issue for quality education: CONFINTEA VI follow up and role of university lifelong learning: some issues for European higher education; Is there a chance for roles of higher education in the development of a 'learning climate' through regional development in Hungary?; Country report on the action plan on adult learning: Hungary; Country report on the action plan on adult learning: Romania.

This set of recent papers reflects the work of the author and compiles concepts and ideas, policies and tensions associated ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Nemeth, Balazs
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe; Romania; Hungary
Resource type: Book
Subjects: Lifelong learning; Higher education; Providers of education and training;

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OECD skills strategy diagnostic report: Austria

The OECD skills strategy provides countries with a framework to analyse their strengths and weaknesses as a basis for taking concrete actions according to three pillars that comprise a national skills system: (1) developing relevant skills from childhood to adulthood; (2) activating the supply of skills on the labour market; and (3) using skills effectively in the economy and society. An effective skills strategy ensures policy coherence across the three pillars while strengthening the enabling conditions of effective governance and financing, which underpin the skills system as a whole. The OECD is working with countries to support the development of effective skills strategies at the national and local level. Putting the OECD skills strategy's integrated paradigm into practice requires whole-of-government collaboration across ministries and government levels, as well as co-operation with and among stakeholders, such as education institutions, social partners and civil society. This diagnostic report identifies 14 skills challenges for Austria. They are: (1) expanding access and improving quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC); (2) improving quality and equity in compulsory education; (3) strengthening foundation skills and labour market links in vocational education and training; (4) meeting economic demand for high-level skills; (5) expanding adult education, especially for low-skilled people; (6) improving people's ability to navigate the skills system through effective guidance and flexibility; (7) enabling women to fully participate in the labour market by improving the work-family balance; (8) retaining older people and people with moderate health problems in the labour market; (9) activating the skills of migrants; (10) encouraging employers to make better use of skills; (11) creating a skills system that supports innovation; (12) financing a more equitable and efficient skills system; (13) improving governance and responsibility structures; and (14) improving the evidence base for the development of the skills system. The report provides cases illustrating how other countries have tackled similar challenges, which can be used as input to potential policy options on how to tackle these challenges.

The OECD skills strategy provides countries with a framework to analyse their strengths and weaknesses as a basis for taking ...  Show Full Abstract  

Corporate authors: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Austria; Europe
Resource type: Report
Series name: OECD skills strategy
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Policy; Management

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'Not girly, not sexy, not glamorous': primary school girls' and parents' constructions of science aspirations

Internationally, there is widespread concern about the need to increase participation in the sciences (particularly the physical sciences), especially among girls/women. This paper draws on data from a five-year, longitudinal study of 10-14-year-old children's science aspirations and career choice to explore the reasons why, even from a young age, many girls may see science aspirations as 'not for me'. [The authors] discuss data from phase one - a survey of over 9000 primary school children (aged 10/11) and interviews with 92 children and 78 parents, focusing in particular on those girls who did not hold science aspirations. Using a feminist post-structuralist analytic lens, [the authors] argue that science aspirations are largely 'unthinkable' for these girls because they do not fit with either their constructions of desirable/intelligible femininity nor with their sense of themselves as learners/students. [The authors] argue that an underpinning construction of science careers as 'clever'/'brainy', 'not nurturing' and 'geeky' sits in opposition to the girls' self-identifications as 'normal', 'girly', 'caring' and 'active'. Moreover, [the authors] suggest that this lack of fit is exacerbated by social inequalities, which render science aspirations potentially less thinkable for working-class girls in particular. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications for increasing women's greater participation in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).

Internationally, there is widespread concern about the need to increase participation in the sciences (particularly the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan;
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Pedagogy, culture and society
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Youth; Gender; Career development;

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Work-oriented and competence-based curriculum design in the German dual vocational and education system

A reform in 1996 introduced a work-centred and competence-based turn in the school-based component of dual vocational education and training in Germany. The classic distinctions of 'theory equals school-based learning' and 'practical experience equals work-based learning in companies' are to be removed through the orientation of school-based content to the practical requirements of the vocational and professional work. In the article the underlying concept 'areas of learning' is described and contrasted to the competence-based approach in general education.

A reform in 1996 introduced a work-centred and competence-based turn in the school-based component of dual vocational ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Gessler, Michael
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Journal title: Bulletin of Institute of Technology and Vocational Education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Vocational education and training; Governance; Teaching and learning;

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Out of sight: how we lost track of thousands of NEETS, and how we can transform their prospects

This report suggests that one in eight young people in the UK are NEET (not in education, employment or training) at the age of 18. Furthermore that the quality of local data on these young people has led to a systematic understatement of the true scale of the problem. This situation results in many 'missing NEETs' not getting the help and support they need. Based on data and qualitative case study evidence in one area of England, the report argues that the defining characteristic of the majority of unemployed 18-year-olds is low qualifications, especially in English and mathematics. Some are deprived and excluded, but the majority do not come from low-income families and do not have special educational needs. Most had received two years of fully funded education and training after leaving school. Very few of them reached the age of 16 with much understanding or experience of the world of work, or an idea of the career direction they wanted to follow. Almost all of them lacked decent qualifications in literacy or numeracy when they left school, and almost none of them had gained any new qualifications in these skills subsequently. As a result, when they found themselves in the labour market, they did not have the skills and qualifications they needed to get a decent job. The report calls for a proper count in every area and proposes four building blocks for success: (1) strong foundations: pre-16 literacy and numeracy at school; (2) careers advice and guidance that looks ahead to 18; (3) engaging employers with young people and learning; and (4) post-16 education and training that helps young people secure work.

This report suggests that one in eight young people in the UK are NEET (not in education, employment or training) at the age ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Brooks, Richard
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: England; Great Britain; Europe
Resource type: Paper
Series name: Fabian ideas
Subjects: Youth; Disadvantaged; Employment;

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