Search results

Advanced search   My selection

Pure ethnic gaps in educational attainment and school to work transitions: when do they arise?

This article decomposes the observed gaps in educational attainment and school-to-work transitions in Belgium between grandchildren of natives and of women of 'non-Western' nationality into (i) differences in observed family endowments and (ii) a residual 'pure ethnic gap'. It innovates by explicitly taking delays in educational attainment into account, by identifying the moments at which the pure ethnic gaps arise, by disentangling the decision to continue schooling at the end of a school year from the achievement within a particular grade, and by integrating the language spoken at home among observed family endowments. The pure ethnic gap in educational attainment is found to be small if delays are neglected, but substantial if not and for school-to-work transitions. It is shown that more than 20 per cent of the pure ethnic gap in graduating from secondary school without delay originates in 10th grade. Language usage explains only part of the gap in school-to-work transitions for low educated.

This article decomposes the observed gaps in educational attainment and school-to-work transitions in Belgium between ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Baert, Stijn; Cockx, Bart
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Europe; Belgium
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Employment; Outcomes; Youth;

VITAL Object

Information, college decisions and financial aid: evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in China

Past studies find that disadvantaged students in the United States are often misinformed about college costs and financial aid opportunities and thus may make sub-optimal decisions regarding college. This information problem may be even more serious in developing countries. [The authors] therefore conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of providing information on college costs and financial aid to high school students in poor regions of northwest China. [The authors] find that information increases the likelihood that students receive some types of financial aid. Information also positively affects the choice to attend college but does not seem to affect more specific college choices.

Past studies find that disadvantaged students in the United States are often misinformed about college costs and financial ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Loyalka, Prashant; Song, Yingquan; Wei, Jianguo;
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: Asia; China
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Participation; Finance;

VITAL Object

Tax benefits for graduate education: incentives for whom?

Numerous studies have examined the enrollment responses of traditional undergraduate students to the introduction of government-provided tuition subsidies, but far less attention has been devoted to the elasticity of demand for graduate education. This paper examines how the tax code and government education policies affect graduate enrollment and persistence rates along with the ways in which students fund their graduate education. [The authors'] empirical methodology is based on exogenous variations in the availability of an income tax exemption for employer-provided tuition assistance for graduate courses. [The authors] find that graduate attendance among full-time workers age 24-30 is higher when the tax exemption is available, mostly due to higher persistence in public universities and vocational course work. The use of employer aid for individuals enrolled in full-time and public part-time graduate programs also increases. [The authors] present some evidence that universities may adjust tuition to capture part of the incidence.

Numerous studies have examined the enrollment responses of traditional undergraduate students to the introduction of ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bednar, Steven; Gicheva, Dora
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: North America; United States
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Higher education; Participation;

VITAL Object

Elimination of user-fees in tertiary education: a distributive analysis for Ecuador

This paper offers new evidence and methods for understanding the distributive effect of a universal government policy to eliminate user fees in public universities in Ecuador. The main argument to eliminate user fees in higher education is that it will increase enrollment among the poor. In this regard, eliminating tuition fees is supposed to be a progressive policy. Using several panel data, however, credible evidence exists that eliminating tuition fees has no significant impact on opportunities for tertiary education. In addition, the policy becomes regressive two years after its implementation. Results, however, are sensitive to the welfare indicator used, i.e. either assets index or income poverty. In any case, results show that, at a minimum, the policy had non-progressive effects.

This paper offers new evidence and methods for understanding the distributive effect of a universal government policy to ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Ponce, Juan; Loayza, Yessenia
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Ecuador; South America
Journal title: International journal of higher education
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Policy; Higher education; Finance;

VITAL Object

'You pay your share, we'll pay our share': the college cost burden and the role of race, income, and college assets

Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether parents' college savings for their children helps reduce the burden on students to pay for college. Using trivariate probit analysis with predicted probabilities, in this exploratory study we find recent changes in the financial aid system place a higher responsibility on African American, Latino/Hispanic, and moderate-income students to pay for college themselves. We also find when parents open a savings account, start a state-sponsored savings plan, or open a college investment fund students are less likely to pay for college with student contributions. Therefore, we suggest in addition to grants and scholarships, policies that encourage accumulation of savings for college among minority and lower income families may help reduce the college cost burden they experience.

Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Elliott, William; Friedline, Terri
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Equity; Demographics;

VITAL Object

The full extent of student-college academic undermatch

This paper quantifies the extent of student-college 'academic undermatch,' which occurs when a student's academic credentials permit them access to a college or university that is more selective than the postsecondary alternative they actually choose. Using a nationally representative dataset, we find that 41 per cent of students undermatch in their postsecondary choice. We also find that academic undermatch affects students with a range of academic credentials, but is more common among those students from low socioeconomic status families, who live in rural areas, and whose parents have no college degree. Finally, we show that between the 1992 and 2004 high school senior cohorts, academic undermatch has decreased by nearly 20 per cent. The decrease is partially due to students being more likely to apply to a matched college.

This paper quantifies the extent of student-college 'academic undermatch,' which occurs when a student's academic ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Smith, Jonathan; Pender, Matea; Howell, Jessica
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Providers of education and training; Equity;

VITAL Object

Inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America: evidence from PISA 2006-2009

We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational achievement in [OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment] PISA 2006-2009. We work with alternative characterization of types: gender, school type (public or private), parental education, and their combinations. Following Checchi-Peragine's (2010) non-parametric method, we find that inequality of opportunity for educational achievement in Latin America ranges from less than one per cent to up to 25 per cent, depending on the year, the country, the subject and the specification of circumstances. The magnitudes are substantial with respect to what is found in comparator countries. Parental education and school type prove to be important sources of inequality of opportunity, contrary to gender. By means of sensitivity analyses, while most results show small to moderate variation in terms of magnitudes, in ordinary terms (rankings) they remain quite stable. Brazil stands out as the most opportunity unequal country of the sample.

We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Walternberg, Fabio D.
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Mexico; Argentina; Brazil;
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Equity; Outcomes; Secondary education;

VITAL Object

Higher education in Turkey: subsidizing the rich or the poor?

We investigate how the benefits of publicly financed higher education in Turkey are distributed among students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. We use a unique dataset from a nationally representative sample of university entrance exam takers together with data on government subsidies to public universities. We compare the characteristics of students who succeed in the exam to those who do not and those who enter public universities to those who go to private ones. Our econometric analyses based on a three-stage selection model reveal that students from wealthier and more educated families are more likely to be successful at university entrance. Unlike the findings in other countries, students who enroll in private universities come from higher income and more educated families. However, among those who enter public universities, students from higher income and more educated families are more likely to go to universities that receive larger subsidies from the government.

We investigate how the benefits of publicly financed higher education in Turkey are distributed among students with ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Turkey; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Higher education; Equity; Finance;

VITAL Object

Student incentives and preferential treatment in college admissions

We consider a framework in which the optimal admissions policy of a purely academic-quality oriented college implements preferential treatment in favor of the student from the deprived socioeconomic background which maximizes the competition between candidates. We find that the exact form of the preferential treatment admissions policy matters for student incentives and hence for student-body diversity in equilibrium. Preferential treatment policy in college admissions often takes, or is perceived to take, an additive form where the score of the applicant from the deprived background is augmented y a fixed number of points. Such a preferential treatment policy fails to incentivize students from the deprived background. Despite the affirmative action, the level of preferential treatment that achieves academic excellence leaves student-body diversity unchanged compared with a background-blind admissions policy and leads to a higher intergroup score gap.

We consider a framework in which the optimal admissions policy of a purely academic-quality oriented college implements ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Pastine, Ivan; Pastine, Tuvana
Date: 2012
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Participation; Equity;

VITAL Object

The redistributive equity of affirmative action: exploring the role of race, socioeconomic status, and gender in college admissions

This paper contributes to research on affirmative action by examining issues of equity in the context of racial quotas in Brazil. We study the experience of the University of Brasilia, which established racial quotas in 2004 reserving 20 per cent of available admissions slots for students who self-identified as black. Based on university admissions data and a student survey conducted by the authors, we find evidence that race, socioeconomic status, and gender were considerable barriers to college attendance and achievement. For example, first-difference regressions involving pairs of siblings indicate that black identity and gender had a negative effect on entrance exam scores. Moreover, we compare displaced and displacing applicants and find that racial quotas helped promote equity to some extent. Nevertheless, the scale and scope of redistribution were highly limited, and the vast majority of Brazilians had little chance of attending college, suggesting that more still needs to be done.

This paper contributes to research on affirmative action by examining issues of equity in the context of racial quotas in ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Francis, Andrew M.; Tannuri-Pianto, Maria
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Brazil; South America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Equity; Demographics; Gender;

VITAL Object