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Determinants of the international mobility of students

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, [the authors] identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, [the authors] assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. [The authors] find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. [The authors] also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, [the authors] do not find an important role for registration fees.

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Beine, Michel; Noel, Romain; Ragot, Lionel
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Oceania; Australia; New Zealand;
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: International education; Students; Migration;

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Gender ratios at top PhD programs in economics

Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for 10 of the top US economics departments between 1987 and 2007, [the authors] find persistent differences in the gender compositions of both faculty and graduate students across departments. There is a positive correlation between the share of female faculty and the share of women in the [Doctorate of Philosophy] PhD class graduating six years later. Using instrumental variable analysis, [the authors] find robust evidence that this relation is causal. These results contribute to [the] understanding of the persistent under-representation of women in economics, as well as for the persistent segregation of women in the labor force.

Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for 10 of the top US economics departments between 1987 and 2007, ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hale, Galina; Regev, Tali
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Gender; Higher education; Students;

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The effects of tuition fees on transition from high school to university in Germany

This paper studies whether the introduction of tuition fees at public universities in some German states had a negative effect on enrollment, i.e. on the transition of high school graduates to public universities in Germany. In contrast to recent studies, [the authors] do not find a significant effect on aggregate enrollment rates. [This] study differs from previous studies in three important ways. First, [the authors] take full account of the fact that tuition fees were both introduced and abolished in the German states at different points in time. Second, [the authors] consider control variables, which are absent in previous studies but turn out to have a significant impact on the evolution of enrollment rates. Third, [the authors] allow for state-specific effects of tuition fees on enrollment rates. [The authors] conclude that there is no evidence for a general negative effect of the recent introduction of tuition fees on enrollment in Germany.

This paper studies whether the introduction of tuition fees at public universities in some German states had a negative ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bruckmeier, Kerstin; Wigger, Berthold U.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Participation; Higher education;

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Tax benefits for graduate education: incentives for whom?

Numerous studies have examined the enrollment responses of traditional undergraduate students to the introduction of government-provided tuition subsidies, but far less attention has been devoted to the elasticity of demand for graduate education. This paper examines how the tax code and government education policies affect graduate enrollment and persistence rates along with the ways in which students fund their graduate education. [The authors'] empirical methodology is based on exogenous variations in the availability of an income tax exemption for employer-provided tuition assistance for graduate courses. [The authors] find that graduate attendance among full-time workers age 24-30 is higher when the tax exemption is available, mostly due to higher persistence in public universities and vocational course work. The use of employer aid for individuals enrolled in full-time and public part-time graduate programs also increases. [The authors] present some evidence that universities may adjust tuition to capture part of the incidence.

Numerous studies have examined the enrollment responses of traditional undergraduate students to the introduction of ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bednar, Steven; Gicheva, Dora
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: North America; United States
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Higher education; Participation;

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Pomp and circumstance: university presidents and the role of human capital in determining who leads US research institutions

While there is wide agreement that leaders matter, little is known regarding the role that human capital plays in determining who becomes one. We exploit unique attributes of the higher education industry to examine if training and academic ability affect the placement of university presidents within the research hierarchy of US institutions. The analysis uses two data sets drawn from the American College President Survey conducted over three decades and a digitized sample of 212 curriculum vitae for presidents at top US universities in 2009, to model the factors that determine who among the pool of university presidents places at Carnegie-classified research institutions. The findings suggest the rise to the presidency of a research institution depends on the investments in research-specific human capital over the entire course of a career consistent with prior evidence that the knowledge of the research enterprise is critical to the success of such institutions.

While there is wide agreement that leaders matter, little is known regarding the role that human capital plays in ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Singell, Larry D.; Tang, Hui-Hsuan
Date: 2013
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Management; Skills and knowledge

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University rankings in action?: the importance of rankings and an excellence competition for university choice of high-ability students

This paper analyzes how high-ability students respond to different indicators of university quality when applying for a university. Are prospective students influenced by quality indicators of a university ranking or by an excellence status awarded within a nationwide competition? And if so, are some quality dimensions, e.g. research reputation, mentoring, faculty infrastructure, students' satisfaction or the excellence status, more important than others? In order to address these questions, I estimate a random utility model using administrative application data of all German medical schools. As identification relies on the variation in quality indicators over time, I can disentangle the response to changing quality indicators from the common knowledge regarding university attractiveness. Results show that the ranking provides more relevant information in the quality dimensions mentoring, faculty infrastructure and the overall students' satisfaction than with respect to research.

This paper analyzes how high-ability students respond to different indicators of university quality when applying for a ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Horstschraer, Julia
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Providers of education and training; Performance;

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High school grades and university performance: a case study

A critical issue facing a number of colleges and universities is how to allocate first year places to incoming students. The decision to admit students is often based on a number of factors, but a key statistic is a student's high school grade. This paper reports on a case study of the subsequent performance at the University of Winnipeg of high school students from 84 Manitoba high schools. By tracking the university performance of students admitted for the years 1997-2002, we are able to estimate the likelihood of success of subsequent students based on their characteristics as well as their high school grades. In doing so, we used a number of alternative estimators including a Least Squares Dummy Variable Model and a Hierarchical Linear Model. The methodology should be of interest to admissions officers at other universities as an input into estimating the subsequent performance of first year students.

A critical issue facing a number of colleges and universities is how to allocate first year places to incoming students. The ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Cyrenne, Philippe; Chan, Alan
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Canada; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Students; Outcomes;

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Higher education in Turkey: subsidizing the rich or the poor?

We investigate how the benefits of publicly financed higher education in Turkey are distributed among students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. We use a unique dataset from a nationally representative sample of university entrance exam takers together with data on government subsidies to public universities. We compare the characteristics of students who succeed in the exam to those who do not and those who enter public universities to those who go to private ones. Our econometric analyses based on a three-stage selection model reveal that students from wealthier and more educated families are more likely to be successful at university entrance. Unlike the findings in other countries, students who enroll in private universities come from higher income and more educated families. However, among those who enter public universities, students from higher income and more educated families are more likely to go to universities that receive larger subsidies from the government.

We investigate how the benefits of publicly financed higher education in Turkey are distributed among students with ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla
Date: 2012
Geographic subjects: Turkey; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Discussion paper
Series name: IZA discussion paper
Subjects: Higher education; Equity; Finance;

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Parental education, grade attainment and earnings expectations among university students

While there is an extensive literature on intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes (education, health and income for example), many of the pathways through which these outcomes are transmitted are not as well understood. We address this deficit by analysing the relationship between socio-economic status and child outcomes in university, based on a rich and unique dataset of university students. While large socio-economic differences in academic performance exist at the point of entry into university, these differences are substantially narrowed during the period of study. Importantly, the differences across socio-economic backgrounds in university grade attainment for female students is explained by intermediating variables such as personality, risk attitudes and time preferences, and subject/college choices. However, for male students, we explain less than half of the socio-economic gradient through these same pathways. Despite the weakening socio-economic effect in grade attainment, a key finding is that large socio-economic differentials in the earnings expectations of university students persist, even when controlling for grades in addition to our rich set of controls. Our findings pose a sizable challenge for policy in this area as they suggest that equalising educational outcomes may not translate into equal labour market outcomes.

While there is an extensive literature on intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes (education, health and income ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Redmond, Cathy
Date: 2011
Geographic subjects: Ireland; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Equity; Students; Outcomes;

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(Un)desirable effects of output funding for Flemish universities

Governments introducing output parameters (e.g. graduation numbers) in the funding rule of universities believe that it will induce universities to raise their teaching efforts while educational standards will remain unaffected. In this article we first show on theoretical grounds that this desire can only be fulfilled if there exist positive interaction effects between student ability, student effort and teaching effort in the educational production function. Secondly, even if this is the case we argue that universities attracting more students with a vulnerable socioeconomic background will not be rewarded for raising their teaching effort in the same way as other universities. Empirical data on success rates of Flemish university students reveal indeed a strong correlation between students' probabilities of success and socioeconomic background. Moreover, we find a strong social clustering within universities.

Governments introducing output parameters (e.g. graduation numbers) in the funding rule of universities believe that it will ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Cantillon, B.; De Ridder, A.; Vanhaecht, E.;
Date: 2011
Geographic subjects: Belgium; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Providers of education and training; Finance;

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