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Making it real: the benefits of workplace learning in upper-secondary vocational education and training courses

In OECD countries, 'real world' upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) programs are used to engage less academically oriented youth in learning, while helping to prepare them for post-school work and/or further education. In general terms, VET programs with high employer involvement, such as apprenticeship schemes, are considered to be superior to classroom-based VET programs that are typically found in many English-speaking countries. In this study, [the authors] examine outcomes from a potential 'third way': classroom-based VET with a short-term structured workplace learning component. Using propensity score matching and [Program for International Student Assessment] PISA data linked to information from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, [the authors] find this model is associated with higher school completion rates and better employment transitions.

In OECD countries, 'real world' upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) programs are used to engage less ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Vocational education and training; Employment; Participation;

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Risks and returns to educational fields: a financial asset approach to vocational and academic education

Applying a financial assets approach, [the authors] analyze the returns and earnings risk of investments into different types of human capital. Even though the returns from investing in human capital are extensively studied, little is known about the properties of the returns to different types of human capital within a given educational path. Using information from the German Micro Census, [the authors] estimate the risk and returns to 75 fields of education, differentiating between vocational and academic education. [The authors] identify fields of education that are efficient investment goods, i.e. high returns at a given level of risk, and fields that are chosen for other (non-monetary) reasons. Furthermore, [the authors] rank fields of education by their return per unit of risk and find that university education is not always superior to other types of education.

Applying a financial assets approach, [the authors] analyze the returns and earnings risk of investments into different ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Glocker, Daniela; Storck, Johanna
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Outcomes; Evaluation; Skills and knowledge;

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The impact of parental layoff on higher education investment

This paper uses variation in the timing of parental layoff to identify the effect of parental job loss on higher education enrollment. Unlike research that compares laid-off workers to workers who do not lose their jobs, all families in our analysis experience a layoff at some point. The treatment group (layoff when child is 15-17) and control group (layoff when child is 21-23) have statistically indistinguishable initial characteristics, but substantially different higher education enrollment rates. [The authors] find that parental job loss between ages 15 and 17 decreases college enrollment by 10 percentage points.

This paper uses variation in the timing of parental layoff to identify the effect of parental job loss on higher education ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Pan, Weixiang; Ost, Ben
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Employment; Participation; Higher education;

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Private transfers and college students' decision to work

[The authors] estimate the impact of external financial support on the labor supply of students during their tertiary education. Using a dynamic labor supply model and accounting for the endogeneity of income from private transfers, [the authors] find a significantly lower likelihood of being employed for transfer recipients. [The authors'] results suggest that private transfers lead to a shift in students' time allocation, lowering their hours devoted to working and increasing their time devoted to studying. [The authors] find evidence for a psychological component of receiving transfers through an increase in the perceived risk of failure in academic studies.

[The authors] estimate the impact of external financial support on the labor supply of students during their tertiary ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bachmann, Andreas; Boes, Stefan
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Switzerland; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Employment; Finance;

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Access to college and heterogeneous returns to education in China

[The authors] apply a semi-parametric latent variable model to estimate selection and sorting effects on the evolution of private returns to schooling for college graduates during China's reform between 1988 and 2002. [The authors] find that there were substantial sorting gains under the traditional system, but such gains have dissipated to negligible levels in the most recent data. [The authors] take this as evidence of growing influence of private financial constraints on decisions to attend college as tuition costs have risen and the relative importance of government subsidies has declined. The main policy implication of our results is that labor and education reform without concomitant capital market reform and government support for the financially disadvantaged exacerbates increases in inequality inherent in elimination of the traditional 'wage-grid'.

[The authors] apply a semi-parametric latent variable model to estimate selection and sorting effects on the evolution of ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Wang, Xiaojun; Fleisher, Belton M.; Li, Haizheng;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: China; Asia
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Students; Participation;

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Heterogeneous paths through college: detailed patterns and relationships with graduation and earnings

A considerable fraction of college students and bachelor's degree recipients enroll in multiple postsecondary institutions. Despite this fact, there is scant research that examines the nature of the paths - both the number and types of institutions - that students take to obtain a bachelor's degree or through the higher education system more generally. [There is also little known] about how enrollment in multiple institutions of varying quality relates to postgraduate life outcomes. [The authors] use a unique panel data set from Texas that allows [the exmination] in detail the paths that students take toward a bachelor's degree and estimates how enrollment in multiple institutions is related to both degree completion and subsequent earnings. [The authors] show that the paths to a bachelor's degree are diverse and that earnings and BA receipt vary systematically with these paths. Our results call attention to the importance of developing a more complete understanding of why students transfer and what causal role transferring has on the returns to postsecondary educational investment.

A considerable fraction of college students and bachelor's degree recipients enroll in multiple postsecondary institutions. ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Andrews, Rodney J.; Li, Jing; Lovenheim, Michael F.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Pathways; Providers of education and training; Students;

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Local human capital externalities and wages at the firm level: evidence from Italian manufacturing

[The authors] exploit presumably exogenous variation in the availability of college-educated workers at the province level produced by a reform that increased the supply of higher education to estimate human capital production externalities for Italian manufacturing firms. [The authors] show that when the potential endogeneity of local human capital is addressed, the elasticity of white-collar workers' wages with respect to the local college share is around 0.1, while [the authors] find no evidence of a positive effect of local human capital on blue-collar workers' wages.

[The authors] exploit presumably exogenous variation in the availability of college-educated workers at the province level ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bratti, Massimiliano; Leombruni, Roberto
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Italy; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Income; Performance

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Determinants of the international mobility of students

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, [the authors] identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, [the authors] assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. [The authors] find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. [The authors] also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, [the authors] do not find an important role for registration fees.

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Beine, Michel; Noel, Romain; Ragot, Lionel
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Oceania; Australia; New Zealand;
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: International education; Students; Migration;

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College course scarcity and time to degree

College students are taking longer to earn baccalaureate degrees now than ever before, but little is known about institutional factors that may contribute to this trend. In this paper [the authors] investigate an important institutional constraint - course scarcity - that [the authors] hypothesize may be associated with increased time to degree. [The authors] employ a unique administrative dataset from a large, moderately selective, public institution and use an instrumental variables approach, identifying off the random registration times assigned to students. Results suggest that course scarcity does not delay students' graduation. [The authors] explore alternative explanations for [the] findings and discuss a variety of other factors correlated with time to baccalaureate completion.

College students are taking longer to earn baccalaureate degrees now than ever before, but little is known about ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Kurlaender, Michal; Jackson, Jacob; Howell, Jessica;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Participation; Providers of education and training

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Gender ratios at top PhD programs in economics

Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for 10 of the top US economics departments between 1987 and 2007, [the authors] find persistent differences in the gender compositions of both faculty and graduate students across departments. There is a positive correlation between the share of female faculty and the share of women in the [Doctorate of Philosophy] PhD class graduating six years later. Using instrumental variable analysis, [the authors] find robust evidence that this relation is causal. These results contribute to [the] understanding of the persistent under-representation of women in economics, as well as for the persistent segregation of women in the labor force.

Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for 10 of the top US economics departments between 1987 and 2007, ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hale, Galina; Regev, Tali
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Gender; Higher education; Students;

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