- Chiswick, Barry R. (4)
- Neumark, David (4)
- Bailey, Thomas R. (3)
- Griffith, Amanda L. (3)
- Hilmer, Michael J. (3)
- Miller, Paul W. (3)
- Oosterbeek, Hessel (3)
- Singell, Larry D. (3)
- Tyler, John H. (3)
- Andrews, Rodney J. (2)
- Brink, Henriette Maassen van den (2)
- Brown, Sarah (2)
- Caner, Asena (2)
- Chapman, Bruce (2)
- Chevalier, Arnaud (2)
- Gender peer effects in university: evidence from a randomized experiment
Recent studies for primary and secondary education find positive effects of the share of females in the classroom on achievement of males and females. This study examines whether these results can be extrapolated to higher education. [The authors] conduct an experiment in which the shares of females in workgroups for first year students in economics and business are manipulated and students are randomly assigned to these groups. Males tend to postpone, but not abandon, their dropout decision when surrounded by more females and perform worse on courses with high math content. There is also a modest reduction in absenteeism early in the year. Overall, however, [the authors] find no substantial gender peer effects on achievement. This in spite of the fact that according to students' perceptions, both their own, and their peers' behavior are influenced by the share of females.
Recent studies for primary and secondary education find positive effects of the share of females in the classroom on ... Show Full Abstract
- A regression discontinuity analysis of graduation standards and their impact on students' academic trajectories
In 2006, North Carolina put in place high school exit standards requiring students to pass a series of high-stakes exams across several years. [The author] use[s] a regression discontinuity (RD) approach to analyze whether passing or failing one of these exams (Algebra I) impacts a student's decision between choosing a more rigorous college-preparatory math curriculum and an easier 'career' track math curriculum. [The author] find[s] a [five] percentage point gap in the probability of selecting the rigorous curriculum between [ninth] grade students who just passed and those who just failed the exam. RD results across two years (one year in which the graduation standards were not in place) suggest that the discontinuity arose due to fewer students opting into the college track as a result of the exam results.
In 2006, North Carolina put in place high school exit standards requiring students to pass a series of high-stakes exams ... Show Full Abstract
- Educational attainment of children of immigrants: evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth
This study investigates the educational attainment of children of immigrants in the United States. By employing a more detailed classification of children of immigrants, [the authors] examine whether a foreign place of birth of either parent or child affects the child's educational attainment. [The] results indicate that the full-second generation (US-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the highest educational attainment, while the full-first generation (foreign-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the second highest educational attainment compared to the other groups of children of immigrants and native children. Full-first and full-second generation females also achieve higher educational attainment than their native female peers. The results support the optimism theory of assimilation in which the educational attainment of children of immigrants relies on the combination of their foreign-born parents' strong values on education and the children's English proficiency.
This study investigates the educational attainment of children of immigrants in the United States. By employing a more ... Show Full Abstract
- Economic growth in developing countries: the role of human capital
The focus on human capital as a driver of economic growth for developing countries has led to undue attention on school attainment. Developing countries have made considerable progress in closing the gap with developed countries in terms of school attainment, but recent research has underscored the importance of cognitive skills for economic growth. This result shifts attention to issues of school quality and, in that area, developing countries have been much less successful in closing the gaps with developed countries. Without improving school quality, developing countries will find it difficult to improve their long run economic performance.
The focus on human capital as a driver of economic growth for developing countries has led to undue attention on school ... Show Full Abstract
- The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees
[The authors] assess the relevance of formal education on the productivity of the self-employed, distinguishing between opportunity entrepreneurs, who voluntarily pursue a business opportunity, and necessity entrepreneurs, who lack alternative employment options. [The authors] expect differences in the returns to education between these groups due to different levels of control over the use of their human capital. The analysis employs the German Socio-Economic Panel and accounts for the endogeneity of education and non-random selection. Results indicate that the returns to a year of education for opportunity entrepreneurs are similar to the paid employees' rate of 8.8 per cent, but three percentage points lower for necessity entrepreneurs. Pooling the two types of entrepreneurs tends to understate the value of education for opportunity entrepreneurs and may spark misguided hopes concerning necessity entrepreneurs. The results may also partly explain Europe/US differences in average entrepreneurial returns.
[The authors] assess the relevance of formal education on the productivity of the self-employed, distinguishing between ... Show Full Abstract
- Do in-state tuition benefits affect the enrollment of non-citizens?: evidence from universities in Texas
In 2001, the Texas state legislature passed House Bill 1403. With the passage of the law, Texas became the first state to offer in-state tuition rates at public universities for non-citizens (including illegal immigrants) who attended high school in the state for three years. As a result of the policy change, the cost of attending college at public universities in Texas fell dramatically for non-citizens. Using administrative data from five universities in Texas, [the authors] employ a quasi-experimental design to identify the effects of the policy change on the probability of enrollment at each of the universities. The results demonstrate a large and significant positive effect of lowering tuition on the enrollment of non-citizens at the University of Texas at Pan American and the University of Texas at San Antonio.
In 2001, the Texas state legislature passed House Bill 1403. With the passage of the law, Texas became the first state to ... Show Full Abstract
- The impact of online learning on students' course outcomes: evidence from a large community and technical college system
Using a large administrative dataset from a statewide system including 34 community and technical colleges, the authors employed an instrumental variable technique to estimate the impact of online versus face-to-face course delivery on student course performance. The travel distance between each student's home and college campus served as an instrument for the likelihood of enrolling in an online section of a given course. In addition, college-by-course fixed effects controlled for within- and between-course selection bias. Analyses yield robust negative estimates for online learning in terms of both course persistence and course grade, contradicting the notion that there is no significant difference between online and face-to-face student outcomes - at least within the community college setting. Accordingly, both two-year and four-year colleges may wish to focus on evaluating and improving the quality of online coursework before engaging in further expansions of online learning.
Using a large administrative dataset from a statewide system including 34 community and technical colleges, the authors ... Show Full Abstract
- Impact of household factors on youth's school decisions in Thailand
This paper uses Fairlie's techniques to estimate differences in school enrollment between municipal and non-municipal areas. [The author] found that group differences in all explanatory variables explain approximately 70 per cent of the gap. Education level of household head is the largest significant factor accounting for a gap in males' school enrollment whereas the largest factor explaining the municipal/non-municipal gap in the school enrollment rate of females 15-17 years of age is income. Based on empirical results, some educational policies are suggested to increase school enrollment of Thai youths. Demand-side financing policies such as target vouchers should be used for the chance of schooling especially for those facing financial difficulty. Non-formal education and distance learning could be used to provide an alternative and more appropriate way of learning for married youths. Establishment of a child care center in a community can reduce workload of youths in taking care of young family members and allow them to participate in school activity.
This paper uses Fairlie's techniques to estimate differences in school enrollment between municipal and non-municipal areas. ... Show Full Abstract
- Disability and returns to education in a developing country
In this paper, [the authors] estimate wage returns to investment in education for persons with disabilities in Nepal, using information on the timing of being impaired during school-age years as identifying instrumental variables for years of schooling. [The authors] employ unique data collected from persons with hearing, physical, and visual impairments as well as nationally representative survey data from the Nepal Living Standard Survey 2003/2004 (NLSS II). After controlling for endogeneity bias arising from schooling decisions as well as sample selection bias due to endogenous labor participation, the estimated rate of returns to education is very high among persons with disabilities, ranging from 19.3 to 25.6 per cent. The coexistence of these high returns to education and limited years of schooling suggest that supply side constraints in education to accommodate persons with disabilities and/or there are credit market imperfections. Policies to eliminate these barriers will mitigate poverty among persons with disabilities, the largest minority group in the world.
In this paper, [the authors] estimate wage returns to investment in education for persons with disabilities in Nepal, using ... Show Full Abstract
- The returns to private education: evidence from Mexico
Despite the rapid expansion and increasing importance of private education in developing countries, little is known on the impact of studying in private schools on education and wages. This paper contributes to filling this gap by estimating the returns to private high schools in Mexico. [The authors] construct a unique data set that combines labour market outcomes and historical census data, and [the authors] exploit changes in the availability and size of public and private high schools across states and over time for identification. [The authors] find that attending a private high school does not affect school progression to college nor high school wages but it does positively affect wages conditional on college completion. Results are robust to a number of robustness tests on the validity of the instruments.
Despite the rapid expansion and increasing importance of private education in developing countries, little is known on the ... Show Full Abstract