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Local human capital externalities and wages at the firm level: evidence from Italian manufacturing

[The authors] exploit presumably exogenous variation in the availability of college-educated workers at the province level produced by a reform that increased the supply of higher education to estimate human capital production externalities for Italian manufacturing firms. [The authors] show that when the potential endogeneity of local human capital is addressed, the elasticity of white-collar workers' wages with respect to the local college share is around 0.1, while [the authors] find no evidence of a positive effect of local human capital on blue-collar workers' wages.

[The authors] exploit presumably exogenous variation in the availability of college-educated workers at the province level ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bratti, Massimiliano; Leombruni, Roberto
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Italy; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Income; Performance

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Determinants of the international mobility of students

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, [the authors] identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, [the authors] assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. [The authors] find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. [The authors] also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, [the authors] do not find an important role for registration fees.

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Beine, Michel; Noel, Romain; Ragot, Lionel
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Oceania; Australia; New Zealand;
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: International education; Students; Migration;

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College course scarcity and time to degree

College students are taking longer to earn baccalaureate degrees now than ever before, but little is known about institutional factors that may contribute to this trend. In this paper [the authors] investigate an important institutional constraint - course scarcity - that [the authors] hypothesize may be associated with increased time to degree. [The authors] employ a unique administrative dataset from a large, moderately selective, public institution and use an instrumental variables approach, identifying off the random registration times assigned to students. Results suggest that course scarcity does not delay students' graduation. [The authors] explore alternative explanations for [the] findings and discuss a variety of other factors correlated with time to baccalaureate completion.

College students are taking longer to earn baccalaureate degrees now than ever before, but little is known about ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Kurlaender, Michal; Jackson, Jacob; Howell, Jessica;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Participation; Providers of education and training

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Gender ratios at top PhD programs in economics

Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for 10 of the top US economics departments between 1987 and 2007, [the authors] find persistent differences in the gender compositions of both faculty and graduate students across departments. There is a positive correlation between the share of female faculty and the share of women in the [Doctorate of Philosophy] PhD class graduating six years later. Using instrumental variable analysis, [the authors] find robust evidence that this relation is causal. These results contribute to [the] understanding of the persistent under-representation of women in economics, as well as for the persistent segregation of women in the labor force.

Analyzing university faculty and graduate students data for 10 of the top US economics departments between 1987 and 2007, ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Hale, Galina; Regev, Tali
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Gender; Higher education; Students;

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The effects of tuition fees on transition from high school to university in Germany

This paper studies whether the introduction of tuition fees at public universities in some German states had a negative effect on enrollment, i.e. on the transition of high school graduates to public universities in Germany. In contrast to recent studies, [the authors] do not find a significant effect on aggregate enrollment rates. [This] study differs from previous studies in three important ways. First, [the authors] take full account of the fact that tuition fees were both introduced and abolished in the German states at different points in time. Second, [the authors] consider control variables, which are absent in previous studies but turn out to have a significant impact on the evolution of enrollment rates. Third, [the authors] allow for state-specific effects of tuition fees on enrollment rates. [The authors] conclude that there is no evidence for a general negative effect of the recent introduction of tuition fees on enrollment in Germany.

This paper studies whether the introduction of tuition fees at public universities in some German states had a negative ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bruckmeier, Kerstin; Wigger, Berthold U.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Participation; Higher education;

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Does working during higher education affect students' academic progression?

This paper examines the effect of working during higher education on academic progression, in terms of number of credits acquired by first-year university students in Italy. [The author] discusses different contrasting hypotheses on the role of employment during university on academic outcomes: the zero-sum perspective, the reconciliation thesis, the positive and the negative selection to work hypotheses. In the empirical part [the author] analyzes data from the Eurostudent survey, which collected data on a representative sample of university students who were enrolled in the academic year 2002/03, after the implementation of the 'Bologna Process'. [The author] uses a negative binomial regression model considering work experience as an endogenous multinomial treatment. Results indicate that, conditional on observed covariates (socio-demographic variables, school-related and university-related variables), there is a positive self-selection into employment, especially for low-intensity work. Traditional multivariate regressions show a penalty in academic progression only for high-intensity workers, but once accounted for unobserved heterogeneity also the low-intensity work experience appears to negatively affect academic progression.

This paper examines the effect of working during higher education on academic progression, in terms of number of credits ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Triventi, Moris
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Italy; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Higher education; Employment;

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The long-lasting effects of family background: a European cross-country comparison

This paper investigates how and to what extent the association between family socio-economic status (SES) during childhood and old age health, income and cognition varies across 11 European countries. It uses the Survey on Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and SHARELIFE, which collects retrospective information on respondents' family backgrounds during their childhood. [The author] also analyzes which factors lead to intergenerational persistence of human capital by accounting for childhood health and school performance, education and labor market outcomes. The results show a strong relationship between family SES during childhood and old age outcomes and a large cross-country heterogeneity. Education appears as the main channel for this gradient and explains most of the estimated cross-country heterogeneity. Moreover, [the author] shows evidence of a strong correlation between income inequality and [the author's] estimates of intergenerational persistence of human capital.

This paper investigates how and to what extent the association between family socio-economic status (SES) during childhood ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Mazzonna, Fabrizio
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Skills and knowledge; Culture and society; Equity;

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The impact of Israel's class-based affirmative action policy on admission and academic outcomes

In the early to mid-2000s, four flagship Israeli selective universities introduced a voluntary need-blind and color-blind affirmative action policy for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The program allowed departments to offer admission to academically borderline applicants who were above a certain threshold of disadvantage. [The authors] examine the effect of eligibility for affirmative action on admission and enrollment outcomes as well as on academic achievement using a regression discontinuity (RD) design. [The authors] show that students who were just barely eligible for this voluntary policy had a significantly higher probability of admission and enrollment, as compared to otherwise similar students.

In the early to mid-2000s, four flagship Israeli selective universities introduced a voluntary need-blind and color-blind ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Alon, Sigal; Malamud, Ofer
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Israel; Middle East
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Equity; Disadvantaged; Demographics;

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Does attending a STEM high school improve student performance?: evidence from New York City

[The authors] investigate the role of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools in New York City (NYC) in promoting performance in science and mathematics and in closing the gender and race gaps in STEM subjects. Using administrative data covering several recent cohorts of public school students and a rich variety of high schools including over 30 STEMs, [the authors] estimate the effect of attending a STEM high school on a variety of student outcomes, including test taking and performance on specialized science and mathematics examinations.

[The authors] investigate the role of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools in ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Wiswall, Matthew; Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Performance; Secondary education;

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Higher education expansion and unskilled labour market outcomes

The increasing demand for higher education reduces the supply and changes the composition of unskilled secondary school graduates, and it may therefore affect their labour market outcomes. However, there is little empirical evidence on these effects. This paper analyses a large-scale expansion of higher education supply in Italy, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, to estimate the effects of the policy on the secondary school graduates' probability of being inactive, employed, unemployed, and on their wages. Robust difference-in-differences estimates show that the probability of being inactive decreases by 4.5 per cent, as the policy significantly displaces individuals from inactivity.

The increasing demand for higher education reduces the supply and changes the composition of unskilled secondary school ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Oppedisano, Veruska
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Italy; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Higher education; Skills and knowledge; Labour market;

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