- Neumark, David (4)
- Bailey, Thomas R. (3)
- Chiswick, Barry R. (3)
- Griffith, Amanda L. (3)
- Hilmer, Michael J. (3)
- Singell, Larry D. (3)
- Tyler, John H. (3)
- Andrews, Rodney J. (2)
- Brink, Henriette Maassen van den (2)
- Brown, Sarah (2)
- Chapman, Bruce (2)
- Chevalier, Arnaud (2)
- Cyrenne, Philippe (2)
- Delaney, Liam (2)
- Ding, Xiaohao (2)
- 'You pay your share, we'll pay our share': the college cost burden and the role of race, income, and college assets
Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether parents' college savings for their children helps reduce the burden on students to pay for college. Using trivariate probit analysis with predicted probabilities, in this exploratory study we find recent changes in the financial aid system place a higher responsibility on African American, Latino/Hispanic, and moderate-income students to pay for college themselves. We also find when parents open a savings account, start a state-sponsored savings plan, or open a college investment fund students are less likely to pay for college with student contributions. Therefore, we suggest in addition to grants and scholarships, policies that encourage accumulation of savings for college among minority and lower income families may help reduce the college cost burden they experience.
Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether ... Show Full Abstract
- The effects of family college savings on postsecondary school enrollment rates of students with disabilities
This is the first study to examine whether parents' college savings is positively associated with enrollment in postsecondary education of students in special education programs. In addition to examining postsecondary school enrollment among students with disabilities, we also examine whether students' and parents' college expectations act as a mediator between parents' college savings and postsecondary school enrollment. We find that while not all types of college savings are associated with postsecondary enrollment, college bonds are a consistent and strong statistically significant predictor of postsecondary enrollment of students with disabilities. Further, we find evidence that students' and parents' college expectations act as a partial mediator between college bonds and enrollment in postsecondary school.
This is the first study to examine whether parents' college savings is positively associated with enrollment in ... Show Full Abstract
- Long-term effects of Individual Development Accounts on postsecondary education: follow-up evidence from a randomized experiment
This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a three-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level. The IDA program, which ran from 1998 to 2003 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, provided low-income households with financial education and matching funds for qualified savings withdrawals, including a 1:1 match for educational uses. We find a significant impact on education enrollment and positive (but non-significant) impacts on degree completion and increase in level of education. We also examine the interaction between gender and treatment assignment, finding that the IDA had a strong positive effect on increased educational attainment for men but not for women.
This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a three-year matched savings program ... Show Full Abstract
- Study skills analysis: a pilot study linking a success and psychology course
This study explored a concept that learning study skills in the context of the content area under study may transfer across courses, multiplying the benefits towards academic success. Methods that have been reported to influence academic growth at the community college level include success courses and applied study skills. In this pilot project among community college students, two instructors provided an enriched study skills curriculum by linking a success course with a psychology course. The instructors used techniques and activities geared toward enhancing study skills such as developing metacognitive strategies. The Learning and Study Skills Inventory (LASSI) was used to assess students' progress. Despite few statistically significant findings, there were several interesting interaction effects. These provide some evidence for the need to emphasize the development of study strategies in existing success courses while also formally or informally tying such courses with a content course.
This study explored a concept that learning study skills in the context of the content area under study may transfer across ... Show Full Abstract
- The full extent of student-college academic undermatch
This paper quantifies the extent of student-college 'academic undermatch,' which occurs when a student's academic credentials permit them access to a college or university that is more selective than the postsecondary alternative they actually choose. Using a nationally representative dataset, we find that 41 per cent of students undermatch in their postsecondary choice. We also find that academic undermatch affects students with a range of academic credentials, but is more common among those students from low socioeconomic status families, who live in rural areas, and whose parents have no college degree. Finally, we show that between the 1992 and 2004 high school senior cohorts, academic undermatch has decreased by nearly 20 per cent. The decrease is partially due to students being more likely to apply to a matched college.
This paper quantifies the extent of student-college 'academic undermatch,' which occurs when a student's academic ... Show Full Abstract
- The role of noncognitive traits in undergraduate study behaviours
Undergraduate study behaviours, principally lecture attendance and additional study, are shown to predict better student achievement by many researchers. Despite this, there is not much evidence on the determinants of these behaviours. This is the first paper to explore the determinants of study behaviours across multiple subject areas; and is the first to incorporate students' noncognitive traits into such a model; that the authors are aware of. This enables the formation of policy that can improve academic achievement by encouraging study behaviour. The results show that students' noncognitive traits, in particular conscientiousness and future-orientation, are important determinants of lecture attendance and additional study hours. In fact, there is very little that explains undergraduate study behaviour besides noncognitive traits. Standard economic factors, such as family income, financial aid and parental transfers, are not predictive of study behaviours. Some comments are provided on a potential behavioural economics approach to encouraging study behaviours.
Undergraduate study behaviours, principally lecture attendance and additional study, are shown to predict better student ... Show Full Abstract
- Promoting scientific faculties: does it work?: evidence from Italy
In reaction to the OECD-wide declining trend in scientific enrollments, the Italian government launched a policy in 2005 to promote the study of science at the university. The policy promoted extra-curricular activities for secondary school students in chemistry, physics, math and materials science. This article evaluates the policy impact on students' choice of the field of study. We use an intention to treat effect and administrative data on enrollment at two Italian universities. The findings indicate that the probability of enrolling in a scientific track increases by three per cent for males. We find no effect for females. Participating in activities in math increases the probability of enrolling in physics and vice versa. The treatment had also a positive impact on enrollments in pharmacy. The results suggest that the policy was successful in correcting the labour market expectations of male students.
In reaction to the OECD-wide declining trend in scientific enrollments, the Italian government launched a policy in 2005 to ... Show Full Abstract
- Does private tutoring improve students' National College Entrance Exam performance?: a case study from Jinan, China
With the increasing attention on improving student achievement, private tutoring has been expanding rapidly worldwide. However, the evidence on the effect of private tutoring is inconclusive for education researchers and policy makers. Employing a comprehensive dataset collected from China in 2010, this study tries to identify the effect of private tutoring on student achievement in the National College Entrance Exam (NCEE) of China. This study finds that private tutoring has mixed and heterogeneous effects on mathematics, Chinese language, and English language respectively and on the NCEE total score. The average effect of private tutoring is not significant, but it may have a significant and positive effect on urban students with lower achievement or in schools with certain quality. Students from schools with more educational inputs are more likely to benefit from private tutoring.
With the increasing attention on improving student achievement, private tutoring has been expanding rapidly worldwide. ... Show Full Abstract
- Pomp and circumstance: university presidents and the role of human capital in determining who leads US research institutions
While there is wide agreement that leaders matter, little is known regarding the role that human capital plays in determining who becomes one. We exploit unique attributes of the higher education industry to examine if training and academic ability affect the placement of university presidents within the research hierarchy of US institutions. The analysis uses two data sets drawn from the American College President Survey conducted over three decades and a digitized sample of 212 curriculum vitae for presidents at top US universities in 2009, to model the factors that determine who among the pool of university presidents places at Carnegie-classified research institutions. The findings suggest the rise to the presidency of a research institution depends on the investments in research-specific human capital over the entire course of a career consistent with prior evidence that the knowledge of the research enterprise is critical to the success of such institutions.
While there is wide agreement that leaders matter, little is known regarding the role that human capital plays in ... Show Full Abstract
- Retaining through training even for older workers
This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the Netherlands we disentangle the true effect of training incidence from the spurious one determined by unobserved individual heterogeneity. We also take into account that there might be feedback from shocks in the employment status to future propensity of receiving firm-provided training. We find that firm-provided training significantly increases future employment prospects. This also holds for older workers, suggesting that firm-provided training may be an important instrument to retain older workers at work.
This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the ... Show Full Abstract