- Chiswick, Barry R. (4)
- Neumark, David (4)
- Bailey, Thomas R. (3)
- Griffith, Amanda L. (3)
- Hilmer, Michael J. (3)
- Miller, Paul W. (3)
- Singell, Larry D. (3)
- Tyler, John H. (3)
- Andrews, Rodney J. (2)
- Brink, Henriette Maassen van den (2)
- Brown, Sarah (2)
- Caner, Asena (2)
- Chapman, Bruce (2)
- Chevalier, Arnaud (2)
- Cyrenne, Philippe (2)
- Economic growth in developing countries: the role of human capital
The focus on human capital as a driver of economic growth for developing countries has led to undue attention on school attainment. Developing countries have made considerable progress in closing the gap with developed countries in terms of school attainment, but recent research has underscored the importance of cognitive skills for economic growth. This result shifts attention to issues of school quality and, in that area, developing countries have been much less successful in closing the gaps with developed countries. Without improving school quality, developing countries will find it difficult to improve their long run economic performance.
The focus on human capital as a driver of economic growth for developing countries has led to undue attention on school ... Show Full Abstract
- The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees
[The authors] assess the relevance of formal education on the productivity of the self-employed, distinguishing between opportunity entrepreneurs, who voluntarily pursue a business opportunity, and necessity entrepreneurs, who lack alternative employment options. [The authors] expect differences in the returns to education between these groups due to different levels of control over the use of their human capital. The analysis employs the German Socio-Economic Panel and accounts for the endogeneity of education and non-random selection. Results indicate that the returns to a year of education for opportunity entrepreneurs are similar to the paid employees' rate of 8.8 per cent, but three percentage points lower for necessity entrepreneurs. Pooling the two types of entrepreneurs tends to understate the value of education for opportunity entrepreneurs and may spark misguided hopes concerning necessity entrepreneurs. The results may also partly explain Europe/US differences in average entrepreneurial returns.
[The authors] assess the relevance of formal education on the productivity of the self-employed, distinguishing between ... Show Full Abstract
- Do in-state tuition benefits affect the enrollment of non-citizens?: evidence from universities in Texas
In 2001, the Texas state legislature passed House Bill 1403. With the passage of the law, Texas became the first state to offer in-state tuition rates at public universities for non-citizens (including illegal immigrants) who attended high school in the state for three years. As a result of the policy change, the cost of attending college at public universities in Texas fell dramatically for non-citizens. Using administrative data from five universities in Texas, [the authors] employ a quasi-experimental design to identify the effects of the policy change on the probability of enrollment at each of the universities. The results demonstrate a large and significant positive effect of lowering tuition on the enrollment of non-citizens at the University of Texas at Pan American and the University of Texas at San Antonio.
In 2001, the Texas state legislature passed House Bill 1403. With the passage of the law, Texas became the first state to ... Show Full Abstract
- The impact of online learning on students' course outcomes: evidence from a large community and technical college system
Using a large administrative dataset from a statewide system including 34 community and technical colleges, the authors employed an instrumental variable technique to estimate the impact of online versus face-to-face course delivery on student course performance. The travel distance between each student's home and college campus served as an instrument for the likelihood of enrolling in an online section of a given course. In addition, college-by-course fixed effects controlled for within- and between-course selection bias. Analyses yield robust negative estimates for online learning in terms of both course persistence and course grade, contradicting the notion that there is no significant difference between online and face-to-face student outcomes - at least within the community college setting. Accordingly, both two-year and four-year colleges may wish to focus on evaluating and improving the quality of online coursework before engaging in further expansions of online learning.
Using a large administrative dataset from a statewide system including 34 community and technical colleges, the authors ... Show Full Abstract
- Impact of household factors on youth's school decisions in Thailand
This paper uses Fairlie's techniques to estimate differences in school enrollment between municipal and non-municipal areas. [The author] found that group differences in all explanatory variables explain approximately 70 per cent of the gap. Education level of household head is the largest significant factor accounting for a gap in males' school enrollment whereas the largest factor explaining the municipal/non-municipal gap in the school enrollment rate of females 15-17 years of age is income. Based on empirical results, some educational policies are suggested to increase school enrollment of Thai youths. Demand-side financing policies such as target vouchers should be used for the chance of schooling especially for those facing financial difficulty. Non-formal education and distance learning could be used to provide an alternative and more appropriate way of learning for married youths. Establishment of a child care center in a community can reduce workload of youths in taking care of young family members and allow them to participate in school activity.
This paper uses Fairlie's techniques to estimate differences in school enrollment between municipal and non-municipal areas. ... Show Full Abstract
- Disability and returns to education in a developing country
In this paper, [the authors] estimate wage returns to investment in education for persons with disabilities in Nepal, using information on the timing of being impaired during school-age years as identifying instrumental variables for years of schooling. [The authors] employ unique data collected from persons with hearing, physical, and visual impairments as well as nationally representative survey data from the Nepal Living Standard Survey 2003/2004 (NLSS II). After controlling for endogeneity bias arising from schooling decisions as well as sample selection bias due to endogenous labor participation, the estimated rate of returns to education is very high among persons with disabilities, ranging from 19.3 to 25.6 per cent. The coexistence of these high returns to education and limited years of schooling suggest that supply side constraints in education to accommodate persons with disabilities and/or there are credit market imperfections. Policies to eliminate these barriers will mitigate poverty among persons with disabilities, the largest minority group in the world.
In this paper, [the authors] estimate wage returns to investment in education for persons with disabilities in Nepal, using ... Show Full Abstract
- The returns to private education: evidence from Mexico
Despite the rapid expansion and increasing importance of private education in developing countries, little is known on the impact of studying in private schools on education and wages. This paper contributes to filling this gap by estimating the returns to private high schools in Mexico. [The authors] construct a unique data set that combines labour market outcomes and historical census data, and [the authors] exploit changes in the availability and size of public and private high schools across states and over time for identification. [The authors] find that attending a private high school does not affect school progression to college nor high school wages but it does positively affect wages conditional on college completion. Results are robust to a number of robustness tests on the validity of the instruments.
Despite the rapid expansion and increasing importance of private education in developing countries, little is known on the ... Show Full Abstract
- Working (and studying) day and night: heterogeneous effects of working on the academic performance of full-time and part-time students
A growing number of students are working in college and to a greater extent. Using nationally representative data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, [the author] analyzes the effect of working on grades and credit completion for undergraduate students in the United States. [The author] examines the consequences of working for heterogeneous subgroups, with a particular focus on differences between full-time and part-time students. There is no evidence to show that students' grades are harmed by marginal work hours, but that full-time students complete fewer credits per term when increasing work.
A growing number of students are working in college and to a greater extent. Using nationally representative data from the ... Show Full Abstract
- The impact of surplus skills on earnings: extending the over-education model to language proficiency
This paper examines whether the framework developed in the educational mismatch field of research can be generalized to language skills. It uses data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and both 'Worker Self-Assessment' and 'Realized Matches' procedures to quantify expected levels of English skills in each of over 500 occupations in the US Census. Earnings data from the 2000 US Census for adult male immigrant workers are then examined in relation to these occupational English requirements using the over-education, required education, under-education (ORU) approach. The analyses show that earnings are related to a 'correct' matching of an immigrant's language skills with what is expected in his occupation. Mismatches have a small effect on earnings - positive for proficiency in excess of the norms in the occupation and negative for deficits in proficiency. The findings are robust with respect to a range of measurement and specification issues typically examined in ORU studies. It is concluded that the ORU model offers a framework for analysis which can be readily generalized to other forms of investment in human capital.
This paper examines whether the framework developed in the educational mismatch field of research can be generalized to ... Show Full Abstract
- Pure ethnic gaps in educational attainment and school to work transitions: when do they arise?
This article decomposes the observed gaps in educational attainment and school-to-work transitions in Belgium between grandchildren of natives and of women of 'non-Western' nationality into (i) differences in observed family endowments and (ii) a residual 'pure ethnic gap'. It innovates by explicitly taking delays in educational attainment into account, by identifying the moments at which the pure ethnic gaps arise, by disentangling the decision to continue schooling at the end of a school year from the achievement within a particular grade, and by integrating the language spoken at home among observed family endowments. The pure ethnic gap in educational attainment is found to be small if delays are neglected, but substantial if not and for school-to-work transitions. It is shown that more than 20 per cent of the pure ethnic gap in graduating from secondary school without delay originates in 10th grade. Language usage explains only part of the gap in school-to-work transitions for low educated.
This article decomposes the observed gaps in educational attainment and school-to-work transitions in Belgium between ... Show Full Abstract