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HOPE for community college students: the impact of merit aid on persistence, graduation, and earnings

Community colleges play a major role in postsecondary education, yet previous research has emphasized the impact of merit aid on four-year students rather than two-year students. Furthermore, researchers have focused on the impact of merit aid on enrollment and outcomes during college, but none have yet considered the impact of aid on earnings after college. This paper utilizes discontinuities in eligibility criteria for a large merit scholarship to examine the local impact of aid on student outcomes both during college and after college. The findings suggest that reducing the cost of community college does not impact persistence, academic performance, degree completion, expected earnings, or short-term earnings after college for marginally eligible students.

Community colleges play a major role in postsecondary education, yet previous research has emphasized the impact of merit ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Welch, Jilleah G.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Providers of education and training; Students;

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Knocking on the door to the teaching profession?: modeling the entry of prospective teachers into the workforce

[The authors] use a unique longitudinal sample of student teachers ('interns') from six Washington state teacher training institutions to investigate patterns of entry into the teaching workforce. [The authors] estimate split population models that simultaneously estimate the impact of individual characteristics and student teaching experiences on the timing and probability of initial hiring as a public school teacher. Not surprisingly, [the authors] find that interns endorsed to teach in 'difficult-to-staff' areas are more likely to find employment as public school teachers than interns endorsed in other areas. Younger interns, white interns, and interns who completed their student teaching in suburban schools are also more likely to find a teaching job, all else equal. Prospective teachers who do their internships at schools that have more teacher turnover are more likely to find employment, often at those schools. On the other hand, few of the characteristics of an intern's cooperating teacher are predictive of workforce entry. Finally, interns with higher credential exam scores are more likely to be hired by the school where they did their student teaching.

[The authors] use a unique longitudinal sample of student teachers ('interns') from six Washington state teacher training ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Goldhaber, Dan; Krieg, John; Theobald, Roddy
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Teaching and learning; Providers of education and training; Students;

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The labor market returns to a for-profit college education

A lengthy literature estimating the returns to education has largely ignored the for-profit sector. In this paper, [the authors] estimate the earnings gains to for-profit college attendance using restricted-access data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Using an individual fixed effects estimation strategy that allows [the authors] to control for time-invariant unobservable characteristics of students, [the authors] find that students who enroll in associate's degree programs in for-profit colleges experience earnings gains of about 10 per cent relative to high school graduates with no college degree, conditional on employment. Since associate's degree students attend for an average of 2.6 years, this translates to a four per cent return per year of education in a for-profit college, slightly lower than estimates of returns for other sectors found in the literature.

A lengthy literature estimating the returns to education has largely ignored the for-profit sector. In this paper, [the ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Cellini, Stephanie Riegg; Chaudhary, Latika
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Income; Outcomes; Providers of education and training;

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Money for nothing: estimating the impact of student aid on participation in higher education

Understanding how higher education (HE) finance policy can affect HE decisions is important for understanding how governments can promote human capital accumulation. Yet there is a severe lack of evidence on the effectiveness of student aid in encouraging HE participation outside of the US, and none at all for the UK. This paper exploits a reform that took place in the UK in 2004, when maintenance grants were introduced for students from low income families, having been abolished since 1999. This reform occurred in isolation of any other policy changes, and did not affect students from relatively better off families, making them a potential control group. [The authors] use a difference-in-difference framework to estimate the effect of the reform on HE undergraduate participation. [The authors] find a positive impact of maintenance grants, with a 1000 pounds increase in grants leading to a 3.95 percentage point increase in participation.

Understanding how higher education (HE) finance policy can affect HE decisions is important for understanding how ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Dearden, Lorraine; Fitzsimons, Emla; Wyness, Gill
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Great Britain; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Finance; Higher education; Students;

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Making it real: the benefits of workplace learning in upper-secondary vocational education and training courses

In OECD countries, 'real world' upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) programs are used to engage less academically oriented youth in learning, while helping to prepare them for post-school work and/or further education. In general terms, VET programs with high employer involvement, such as apprenticeship schemes, are considered to be superior to classroom-based VET programs that are typically found in many English-speaking countries. In this study, [the authors] examine outcomes from a potential 'third way': classroom-based VET with a short-term structured workplace learning component. Using propensity score matching and [Program for International Student Assessment] PISA data linked to information from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, [the authors] find this model is associated with higher school completion rates and better employment transitions.

In OECD countries, 'real world' upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) programs are used to engage less ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Australia; Oceania
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Vocational education and training; Employment; Participation;

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Risks and returns to educational fields: a financial asset approach to vocational and academic education

Applying a financial assets approach, [the authors] analyze the returns and earnings risk of investments into different types of human capital. Even though the returns from investing in human capital are extensively studied, little is known about the properties of the returns to different types of human capital within a given educational path. Using information from the German Micro Census, [the authors] estimate the risk and returns to 75 fields of education, differentiating between vocational and academic education. [The authors] identify fields of education that are efficient investment goods, i.e. high returns at a given level of risk, and fields that are chosen for other (non-monetary) reasons. Furthermore, [the authors] rank fields of education by their return per unit of risk and find that university education is not always superior to other types of education.

Applying a financial assets approach, [the authors] analyze the returns and earnings risk of investments into different ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Glocker, Daniela; Storck, Johanna
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Germany; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Outcomes; Evaluation; Skills and knowledge;

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The impact of parental layoff on higher education investment

This paper uses variation in the timing of parental layoff to identify the effect of parental job loss on higher education enrollment. Unlike research that compares laid-off workers to workers who do not lose their jobs, all families in our analysis experience a layoff at some point. The treatment group (layoff when child is 15-17) and control group (layoff when child is 21-23) have statistically indistinguishable initial characteristics, but substantially different higher education enrollment rates. [The authors] find that parental job loss between ages 15 and 17 decreases college enrollment by 10 percentage points.

This paper uses variation in the timing of parental layoff to identify the effect of parental job loss on higher education ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Pan, Weixiang; Ost, Ben
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Employment; Participation; Higher education;

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Private transfers and college students' decision to work

[The authors] estimate the impact of external financial support on the labor supply of students during their tertiary education. Using a dynamic labor supply model and accounting for the endogeneity of income from private transfers, [the authors] find a significantly lower likelihood of being employed for transfer recipients. [The authors'] results suggest that private transfers lead to a shift in students' time allocation, lowering their hours devoted to working and increasing their time devoted to studying. [The authors] find evidence for a psychological component of receiving transfers through an increase in the perceived risk of failure in academic studies.

[The authors] estimate the impact of external financial support on the labor supply of students during their tertiary ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Bachmann, Andreas; Boes, Stefan
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: Switzerland; Europe
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Students; Employment; Finance;

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Access to college and heterogeneous returns to education in China

[The authors] apply a semi-parametric latent variable model to estimate selection and sorting effects on the evolution of private returns to schooling for college graduates during China's reform between 1988 and 2002. [The authors] find that there were substantial sorting gains under the traditional system, but such gains have dissipated to negligible levels in the most recent data. [The authors] take this as evidence of growing influence of private financial constraints on decisions to attend college as tuition costs have risen and the relative importance of government subsidies has declined. The main policy implication of our results is that labor and education reform without concomitant capital market reform and government support for the financially disadvantaged exacerbates increases in inequality inherent in elimination of the traditional 'wage-grid'.

[The authors] apply a semi-parametric latent variable model to estimate selection and sorting effects on the evolution of ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Wang, Xiaojun; Fleisher, Belton M.; Li, Haizheng;
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: China; Asia
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Providers of education and training; Students; Participation;

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Heterogeneous paths through college: detailed patterns and relationships with graduation and earnings

A considerable fraction of college students and bachelor's degree recipients enroll in multiple postsecondary institutions. Despite this fact, there is scant research that examines the nature of the paths - both the number and types of institutions - that students take to obtain a bachelor's degree or through the higher education system more generally. [There is also little known] about how enrollment in multiple institutions of varying quality relates to postgraduate life outcomes. [The authors] use a unique panel data set from Texas that allows [the exmination] in detail the paths that students take toward a bachelor's degree and estimates how enrollment in multiple institutions is related to both degree completion and subsequent earnings. [The authors] show that the paths to a bachelor's degree are diverse and that earnings and BA receipt vary systematically with these paths. Our results call attention to the importance of developing a more complete understanding of why students transfer and what causal role transferring has on the returns to postsecondary educational investment.

A considerable fraction of college students and bachelor's degree recipients enroll in multiple postsecondary institutions. ...  Show Full Abstract  

Authors: Andrews, Rodney J.; Li, Jing; Lovenheim, Michael F.
Date: 2014
Geographic subjects: United States; North America
Journal title: Economics of education review
Resource type: Article
Subjects: Pathways; Providers of education and training; Students;

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