- Chiswick, Barry R. (4)
- Neumark, David (4)
- Bailey, Thomas R. (3)
- Griffith, Amanda L. (3)
- Hilmer, Michael J. (3)
- Miller, Paul W. (3)
- Oosterbeek, Hessel (3)
- Singell, Larry D. (3)
- Tyler, John H. (3)
- Andrews, Rodney J. (2)
- Brink, Henriette Maassen van den (2)
- Brown, Sarah (2)
- Caner, Asena (2)
- Chapman, Bruce (2)
- Chevalier, Arnaud (2)
- The long-lasting effects of family background: a European cross-country comparison
This paper investigates how and to what extent the association between family socio-economic status (SES) during childhood and old age health, income and cognition varies across 11 European countries. It uses the Survey on Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and SHARELIFE, which collects retrospective information on respondents' family backgrounds during their childhood. [The author] also analyzes which factors lead to intergenerational persistence of human capital by accounting for childhood health and school performance, education and labor market outcomes. The results show a strong relationship between family SES during childhood and old age outcomes and a large cross-country heterogeneity. Education appears as the main channel for this gradient and explains most of the estimated cross-country heterogeneity. Moreover, [the author] shows evidence of a strong correlation between income inequality and [the author's] estimates of intergenerational persistence of human capital.
This paper investigates how and to what extent the association between family socio-economic status (SES) during childhood ... Show Full Abstract
- The impact of Israel's class-based affirmative action policy on admission and academic outcomes
In the early to mid-2000s, four flagship Israeli selective universities introduced a voluntary need-blind and color-blind affirmative action policy for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The program allowed departments to offer admission to academically borderline applicants who were above a certain threshold of disadvantage. [The authors] examine the effect of eligibility for affirmative action on admission and enrollment outcomes as well as on academic achievement using a regression discontinuity (RD) design. [The authors] show that students who were just barely eligible for this voluntary policy had a significantly higher probability of admission and enrollment, as compared to otherwise similar students.
In the early to mid-2000s, four flagship Israeli selective universities introduced a voluntary need-blind and color-blind ... Show Full Abstract
- Does attending a STEM high school improve student performance?: evidence from New York City
[The authors] investigate the role of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools in New York City (NYC) in promoting performance in science and mathematics and in closing the gender and race gaps in STEM subjects. Using administrative data covering several recent cohorts of public school students and a rich variety of high schools including over 30 STEMs, [the authors] estimate the effect of attending a STEM high school on a variety of student outcomes, including test taking and performance on specialized science and mathematics examinations.
[The authors] investigate the role of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools in ... Show Full Abstract
- Higher education expansion and unskilled labour market outcomes
The increasing demand for higher education reduces the supply and changes the composition of unskilled secondary school graduates, and it may therefore affect their labour market outcomes. However, there is little empirical evidence on these effects. This paper analyses a large-scale expansion of higher education supply in Italy, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, to estimate the effects of the policy on the secondary school graduates' probability of being inactive, employed, unemployed, and on their wages. Robust difference-in-differences estimates show that the probability of being inactive decreases by 4.5 per cent, as the policy significantly displaces individuals from inactivity.
The increasing demand for higher education reduces the supply and changes the composition of unskilled secondary school ... Show Full Abstract
- A comparative analysis of education costs and outcomes: the United States vs. other OECD countries
In this paper [the authors] confirm the universality of steadily rising education expenditures among OECD nations, as predicted by 'Baumol and Bowen's cost disease', and show that this trajectory of costs can be expected to continue for the foreseeable future. However, [the authors] find that while the level of education costs in America is significantly higher than that of all other OECD countries, education spending per student in the United States is increasing about as quickly as it is in many other countries - perhaps even less quickly. Although these cost increases undoubtedly will contribute to each nation's fiscal problems, [the authors] conclude that effective education contributes to improvement of the economic performance of each country and can mitigate resulting financial pressures by spurring growth in overall purchasing power.
In this paper [the authors] confirm the universality of steadily rising education expenditures among OECD nations, as ... Show Full Abstract
- Skill premia and intergenerational education mobility: the French case
In the case of France, [the authors] analyse the changes in the wage value of each education level and the impact of parents' education and income upon the education attainment of children, sons and daughters. [The authors] find a critical decline in the skill premium of the baccalaureat ('bac') in relation to the lowest educational level, and an increase in the skill premia of higher education degrees in relation to the bac, which is however not large enough to erase the decrease in all the skill premia relative to the lowest education. [The authors] also find a significant rise in the impact of family backgrounds upon education from 1993 to 2003, i.e. a decrease in intergenerational education mobility, which primarily derives from higher impact of parental incomes. Finally, the gender wage gap is particularly large for the lowest and the highest education degrees, and intergenerational persistence is greater for sons than for daughters.
In the case of France, [the authors] analyse the changes in the wage value of each education level and the impact of ... Show Full Abstract
- Youth transition from school to work in Spain
Using a data set drawn from the Encuesta Socio-Demografica conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica in 1991, [the authors] analyze the labor market entrance of Spanish school leavers and the match between education and work at the early stages of working life. The empirical evidence shows that human capital exerts a strong influence on the duration of unemployment. With regard to the job match between education and work [the authors] find that young workers are more likely to be underutilized compared to their adult co-workers. Regression results indicate that people with higher education have, all else being equal, a lower probability of being overeducated and a shorter length of unemployment. They also show the poor performance of upper secondary education; a key problem in the Spanish educational system.
Using a data set drawn from the Encuesta Socio-Demografica conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica in 1991, [the ... Show Full Abstract
- Gender peer effects in university: evidence from a randomized experiment
Recent studies for primary and secondary education find positive effects of the share of females in the classroom on achievement of males and females. This study examines whether these results can be extrapolated to higher education. [The authors] conduct an experiment in which the shares of females in workgroups for first year students in economics and business are manipulated and students are randomly assigned to these groups. Males tend to postpone, but not abandon, their dropout decision when surrounded by more females and perform worse on courses with high math content. There is also a modest reduction in absenteeism early in the year. Overall, however, [the authors] find no substantial gender peer effects on achievement. This in spite of the fact that according to students' perceptions, both their own, and their peers' behavior are influenced by the share of females.
Recent studies for primary and secondary education find positive effects of the share of females in the classroom on ... Show Full Abstract
- A regression discontinuity analysis of graduation standards and their impact on students' academic trajectories
In 2006, North Carolina put in place high school exit standards requiring students to pass a series of high-stakes exams across several years. [The author] use[s] a regression discontinuity (RD) approach to analyze whether passing or failing one of these exams (Algebra I) impacts a student's decision between choosing a more rigorous college-preparatory math curriculum and an easier 'career' track math curriculum. [The author] find[s] a [five] percentage point gap in the probability of selecting the rigorous curriculum between [ninth] grade students who just passed and those who just failed the exam. RD results across two years (one year in which the graduation standards were not in place) suggest that the discontinuity arose due to fewer students opting into the college track as a result of the exam results.
In 2006, North Carolina put in place high school exit standards requiring students to pass a series of high-stakes exams ... Show Full Abstract
- Educational attainment of children of immigrants: evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth
This study investigates the educational attainment of children of immigrants in the United States. By employing a more detailed classification of children of immigrants, [the authors] examine whether a foreign place of birth of either parent or child affects the child's educational attainment. [The] results indicate that the full-second generation (US-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the highest educational attainment, while the full-first generation (foreign-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the second highest educational attainment compared to the other groups of children of immigrants and native children. Full-first and full-second generation females also achieve higher educational attainment than their native female peers. The results support the optimism theory of assimilation in which the educational attainment of children of immigrants relies on the combination of their foreign-born parents' strong values on education and the children's English proficiency.
This study investigates the educational attainment of children of immigrants in the United States. By employing a more ... Show Full Abstract